مسودَّة -1 صامويل 13 / 1 – كان شاول ابن … سنة


بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

مسودَّة -1 صامويل 13 / 1 – كان شاول ابن سنة !

للتحميل: (PDF)

التَّرجمات العربية:

(الفاندايك)كان شاول ابن سنة في ملكه, وملك سنتين على إسرائيل.

(الحياة)كان شاول ابن (ثلاثين) سنة حين ملك، وفي السنة الثانية من ملكه،

(المُشتركة)وملك شاول أربعين سنة على بني إسرائيل.

(اليسوعية)وكان شاول ابن حين صار ملكا، وملك سنة على إسرائيل.

الكتاب المُقدَّس: الرَّهبانيَّة اليسوعيَّة, دار المشرق ببيروت, العهد القديم, صـ543. [في النَّص العبري: ”كان شاول ابن سنة حين صار ملكاً, وملك سنتين على إسرائيل“ وهذا أمر غير معقول. لربَّما لم يعرفوا عمر شاول عند ارتقائه العرض, أو بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم خلق الإنسان لربَّما سقط هذا العمر عن النَّص أو لربَّما قصرت مدة مُلكه إلى سنتين لعبرة لاهوتية ]

(الشريف)كان شاول ابن ثلاثين سنة لما ملك، وملك أربعين سنة على إسرائيل.

ما سبب الاختلافات بين التَّرجمات ؟

(NET)13:1 Saul was [thirty]1 years old when he began to reign; he ruled over Israel for [forty]2 years.

Biblical Studies Press, The NET Bible First Edition; Bible. English. NET Bible.; The NET Bible (Biblical Studies Press, 2006; 2006).

[1 tc The MT does not have “thirty.” A number appears to have dropped out of the Hebrew text here, since as it stands the MT (literally, “a son of a year”) must mean that Saul was only one year old when he began to reign! The KJV, attempting to resolve this, reads “Saul reigned one year,” but that is not the normal meaning of the Hebrew text represented by the MT. Although most LXX MSS lack the entire verse, some Greek MSS have “thirty years” here (while others have “one year” like the MT). The Syriac Peshitta has Saul’s age as twenty-one. But this seems impossible to harmonize with the implied age of Saul’s son Jonathan in the following verse. Taking into account the fact that in v. 2 Jonathan was old enough to be a military leader, some scholars prefer to supply in v. 1 the number forty (cf. ASV, NASB). The present translation (“thirty”) is a possible but admittedly uncertain proposal based on a few Greek MSS and followed by a number of English versions (e.g., NIV, NCV, NLT). Other English versions simply supply ellipsis marks for the missing number (e.g., NAB, NRSV).]

Biblical Studies Press, The NET Bible First Edition; Bible. English. NET Bible.; The NET Bible (Biblical Studies Press, 2006; 2006).

[2 tc The MT has “two years” here. If this number is to be accepted as correct, the meaning apparently would be that after a lapse of two years at the beginning of Saul’s reign, he then went about the task of consolidating an army as described in what follows (cf. KJV, ASV, CEV). But if the statement in v. 1 is intended to be a comprehensive report on the length of Saul’s reign, the number is too small. According to Acts 13:21 Saul reigned for forty years. Some English versions (e.g., NIV, NCV, NLT), taking this forty to be a round number, add it to the “two years” of the MT and translate the number in 2 Sam 13:1 as “forty-two years.” While this is an acceptable option, the present translation instead replaces the MT’s “two” with the figure “forty.” Admittedly the textual evidence for this decision is weak, but the same can be said of any attempt to restore sense to this difficult text (note the ellipsis marks at this point in NAB, NRSV). The Syriac Peshitta lacks this part of v. 1.]

Robert D. Bergen, 1, 2 Samuel, electronic ed., Logos Library System; The New American Commentary (Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 2001). Pages 147-48.

[The Hebrew text regarding Saul (lit., “Saul was the son of a year [= one year old] when he became king, and he ruled over Israel two years”) contains problems that have caused translators and commentators to deal creatively with this verse.54 The NIV states that Saul’s age was “thirty,” E. H. Merrill suggests he was forty; yet these are merely guesses and are unsupported by any text.55 Especially in light of Acts 13:21, it is best to regard the extant Hebrew text as corrupted at this pointand avoid speculation regarding Saul’s age at the time of his ascension to Israel’s throne.]

Roger L. Omanson and John Ellington, A Handbook on the First Book of Samuel, UBS handbook series (New York: United Bible Societies, 2001). Page 252-53.

[This verse follows the standard formula for introducing kings of Israel (and later also of Judah) in the books of Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles. But this verse contains one of the most difficult textual problems in the book of 1 Samuel, if not of the whole Bible. The following table shows the great diversity of solutions to the problems:

Problem 1

Problem 2

NJPS

“… years old”

two years”

KJV

one year”

two years”

RSV

“… years old”

“… and two years”

AT

“… years old”

“… years”

NIV

thirty years old”

forty-two years”

REB

thirty years old”

twenty-two years”

NASB

forty years old”

thirty-two years”

NEB

fifty years old”

twenty-two years”

The MT literally says “Saul was a son of a year in his reigning and two years he reigned over Israel.”Obviously there are two errors in the Hebrew text as we have it today: (1) Saul was not one year old when he became king, and (2) he reigned more than two years. Interpreters and translators have followed many solutions to this textual problem:

(a) Some translations, following the example of the Septuagint, omit the entire verse (so TEV, FRCL, and ITCL).

(b) Some translate the verse but leave blank spaces as in RSV (so also NRSV, NAB, Osty, and BP).

(c) Others leave only the first number blank. Compare TOB. “Saul was … years old when he became king and he ruled two years over Israel.” TOB, however, includes a note saying that two years is certainly not correct. NJPS, Fox, EB, BRCL, and GECL follow the same solution as TOB.

(d) Some follow the first-century Jewish historian Josephus and Acts 13:21, and claim that Saul ruled for (about) forty years. Compare NIV “Saul was thirty years old when he became king, and he reigned over Israel forty-two years.” The “thirty years” is based on a few late Septuagint manuscripts.

(e) REB follows the Greek manuscripts, which say that Saul began to reign when he was thirty, and then conjectures that the number of years he ruled was twenty-two: “Saul was thirty years old when he became king, and he reigned over Israel for twenty-two years.”

(f) NBE leaves the first number blank, stating in a note that the original lacks the number. But then NBE says that Saul reigned for twenty-two years; however, it has no note indicating that the number twenty-two is a guess.

Solution (d) above may seem the best at first glance, but a major problem with this is that early in his rule Saul already has a grown son able to command troops (see verse 2). Therefore Saul must have been older than thirty when he became king.

CTAT gives an {A} rating to the MT. As for the first number, CTAT suggests that the author left a blank space, not knowing the exact age of Saul when he began to rule. And as for the second number, CTAT defends the number “two,” suggesting that Saul reigned two years with God’s blessing, that is, he reigned two years before David was anointed (see 16:13). If translators follow the recommendation of CTAT, it may be helpful to indicate in a note the possible sense of the words that Saul “reigned over Israel for two years.”]

Ted Cabal, Chad Owen Brand, E. Ray Clendenen, Paul Copan, J.P. Moreland and Doug Powell, The Apologetics Study Bible: Real Questions, Straight Answers, Stronger Faith (Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers, 2007).

Page 422. [How old was Saul when he became king?The Hebrew text indicates that Saul was “one year old when he became king,” clearly evidence of a damaged text. A few copies of the Septuagint supply the figure 30, while some copies omit the verse altogether. Since no other passages in the Bible provide definitive information on Saul’s age at the time he assumed the kingship, it seems best to recognize that the original number dropped out of the text in the process of transmission, perhaps even before the Greek version was produced around 300 B.C.]

Pages 422-23. [How long did Saul serve as Israel’s king? According to the MT he reigned for two years (lit. “and two years”). In Ac 13:21, however, the Apostle Paul states that Saul ruled for 40 years. In view of Saul’s achievements in battling Israel’s enemies, the number in Ac is either the correct one or a rounding from 42. Apparently a copyist’s error caused the original figure to drop out of this verse.]

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