عصير كتاب: من هو آدم؟ لـ فضل رنا و هيو روس Who Was Adam? By Fazale Rana & Hugh Ross

Posted: سبتمبر 29, 2016 in الإلحاد, التطور الدارويني, عصير الكتب

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Who Was Adam?

A Creation Model Approach to The Origin of Man

By: Fazale Rana & Hugh Ross

Second expanded edition (10-year update)

للتحميل: (PDF) (DOC)

who-was-adam

Introduction: Who Am I?

· What does it mean to be human? Over the centuries, a significant amount of scholarship, art, and literature has been dedicated to making sense of the human experience and illuminating the human condition. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 131-132). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Most people take one of two positions on the topic of human origins. David regarded humanity as God’s ultimate creation. His thoughts are recorded in the Bible. Charles Darwin reasoned that man evolved. He wrote a book about his position.1 [Charles Darwin, The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, 2nd ed., Great Minds Series (1874; repr., Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1998).] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 144-146). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· However, many people (including some credible scientists) agree with the biblical perspective on human origins. Yet this view rarely receives attention in a classroom or a serious examination in scientific debate. Why? The problem doesn’t lie with the scientific evidence, but largely with the approach some creationists take. (In this book, “creationist” refers to anyone who believes in the existence of a supernatural Creator.) People who accept creation often attack human evolutionary models. They quickly point out the model’s deficiencies but seldom offer a viable theory of their own—one open to critique by evolutionary biologists and anthropologists. Even worse, some creationists call the integrity of scientists into question with accusations of deception and conspiracy theories. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 149-155). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Personal attacks destroy the possibility for dialogue. They erect barriers. Such methods will never gain creationist ideas a fair hearing. And these efforts repeatedly fail to convince the scientific community of the Bible’s scientific merits. So do grassroots political efforts designed to force the opposition to acquiesce to creationist demands, while condemning the scientific community for dogmatic naturalism. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 155-158). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Alters and Alters also make the important point that the classroom isn’t where crucial debate about scientific ideas should take place. Rather, they argue, these discussions belong at the highest levels:  Creationists must first change the construct of the scientific community; then science instructors will teach intelligent design because it’s part of the construct. Until that day, instructors cannot honestly teach it as science.3 [Brian J. Alters and Sandra M. Alters, Defending Evolution in the Classroom: A Guide to the Creation/Evolution Controversy (Boston: Jones and Bartlett, 2001), 123.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 172-176). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· For the sake of simplicity, this work follows a precedent established in the Bible. Genesis 5:1–2 says, “When God created man, he made him in the likeness of God. He created them male and female and blessed them. And when they were created, he called them ‘man’” (emphasis added). Rather than denoting gender, the words “Adam,” “he,” and “man” in this book at times signify all humanity—women and men equally. In this usage, no offense is intended to anyone. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 188-192). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Understanding the differences between David’s and Darwin’s perspectives on human origins impacts every important decision an individual can make. Do I have value and purpose, or am I an accident of nature? The answer to this question carries life-changing implications. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 209-211). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

PART I: WHAT IS MAN?

Chapter 1: The Differences between David and Darwin

· What is a man, If his chief good and market of his time Be but to sleep and feed? A beast, no more. Sure He that made us with such large discourse, Looking before and after, gave us not That capability and godlike reason To fust in us unus’d. —Hamlet Act 4, scene 4 [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 215-220). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Is man merely a physical being, the sum of his parts? Can those parts be dissected and used at society’s discretion? Or is there more to human beings than their physical makeup? Does human life possess innate worth and significance that establish inviolable boundaries? These questions lead to the most crucial one of all—what is man? [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 221-223). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· For astronomer Carl Sagan, the stunning imagery magnified the reality that every part of human history that had ever been known occurred on this small dot. Every ancestor you ever had came from this tiny world. Every terrible crime and extraordinary invention, from the discovery of fire to the invention of spaceflight, has all occurred on this tiny little speck.2 [Charles S. Cockell, Impossible Extinction: Natural Catastrophes and the Supremacy of the Microbial World (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), 25.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 226-229). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Humanity’s home, the Milky Way Galaxy, measures about 120,000 light-years across and consists of about 200 billion stars.3 Yet our small spiral galaxy is only one in a collection of 27 galaxies spanning 3 million light-years. Together they comprise but a small fraction of the universe, which contains roughly 200 billion galaxies.4 Each galaxy includes an average of about 100 billion stars, making a total of about 20 billion trillion stars.5 As an infinitesimal part of the universe, Earth’s smallness seems incomprehensible. But there, in its midst, stands man. [3. Dinah L. Moché, Astronomy: A Self-Teaching Guide, 4th ed. (New York: Wiley, 1993), 138–72. 4. A preliminary estimate based on the Hubble Ultra Deep Field shows that about 200 billion galaxies exist in the observable universe. 5. Moché, Astronomy, 52–155.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 229-235). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· However, in the depths of his incredulity, David recalled the Genesis 1 creation account.8 You made him [man] a little lower than the heavenly beings and crowned him with glory and honor. You made him ruler over the works of your hands; you put everything under his feet: all flocks and herds, and the beasts of the field, the birds of the air, and the fish of the sea, all that swim the paths of the seas.9 [8. Genesis 1:26–28. 9. Psalm 8:5–8.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 249-259). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· David’s view of humanity largely prevailed in the Judeo-Christian world until the early 1870s. Then publication of Charles Darwin’s detailed work on human origins, The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, stopped the music. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 262-264). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· For evolutionists, the idea of man’s inherent value and purpose no longer made sense. Darwin proposed that, like all species, humanity evolved through a process of descent with modification from an ancestor shared with apes. As Darwin put it, “In a series of forms graduating insensibly from some apelike creature to man as he now exists, it would be impossible to fix on any definite point when the term ‘man’ ought to be used.”11 [Charles Darwin, The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, 2nd ed., Great Minds Series (1874; repr., Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1998), 188.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 265-268). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Darwin saw evidence that human beings are nothing more than animals—certainly not the direct product of divine activity. He believed man differs only in degree and not in kind from apes. Charles Darwin did the unthinkable: He interpreted humanity in a fully mechanistic and materialistic fashion. According to this view, all of human nature, not just humanity’s physical makeup, emerged under the auspices of natural selection. Darwin regarded humanity’s mental powers and intellectual capacity, as well as moral sense and religious beliefs, as evolution’s invention. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 268-272). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· The late Stephen Jay Gould, in his work Wonderful Life (written nearly 120 years after Darwin’s The Descent of Man), drove home naturalism’s claim: Man’s appearance, self-awareness, intellect, and moral sensibility are not the inevitable product of an evolutionary process that marched inexorably toward increasingly sophisticated organisms with advanced mental capacity. Rather, humanity is nothing more than “a thing so small in a vast universe, a wildly improbable evolutionary event,” that it must be a quirk of fate.12 [Stephen Jay Gould, Wonderful Life: The Burgess Shale and the Nature of History (New York: Norton, 1989), 291.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 273-277). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· According to Gould, “No finale can be specified at the start, none would occur a second time in the same way, because any pathway proceeds through thousands of improbable stages. Alter any early event ever so slightly, and without apparent importance at the time, and evolution cascades into a radically different channel.”13 [Stephen Jay Gould, Wonderful Life: The Burgess Shale and the Nature of History (New York: Norton, 1989), 51.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 279-282). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Gould asserted that if a person were to push the rewind button, erase life’s history, and “replay life’s tape,” the results would be completely different.14 The nature of the evolutionary process renders outcomes nonreproducible. Evolution has no tendencies. From this perspective, humanity might never have been. [Stephen Jay Gould, Wonderful Life: The Burgess Shale and the Nature of History (New York: Norton, 1989), 45-52.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 282-285). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Accordingly, primates emerged through a lucky happenstance. Lucky happenstance caused bipedal primates to appear. Lucky happenstance brought primates with large brains into being. And, once lucky happenstance gave modern humans their start, only lucky happenstance kept them from suffering the fate of Neanderthals and Homo erectus. Historical contingency dramatically amplifies man’s insignificance in the cosmos. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 292-295). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· When Darwin wrote The Descent of Man, he lacked direct evidence for human evolution. He surmised that man must have evolved from an apelike animal based on anatomical comparisons among humans and other mammals, embryological similarities, and the existence of what he called “rudimentary,” or vestigial, organs—biological structures found in humans that seemingly served little or no function but that appeared to be derived from fully functional ancestral forms.16 Darwin reasoned that natural selection and variation were at work in humans, just as in lower animals. He believed that after humans arose, several subspecies (races) evolved.17 [16. Darwin, Descent of Man, 5–26. 17. Ibid., 26–66, 172–213.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 296-301). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· At the time Darwin wrote The Descent of Man, paleontologists had just discovered Cro-Magnon man fossils (1868), dated at 35,000 years of age, in the caves of France.19 However, these human remains did little to support the notion of human evolution. Paleontologists had also discovered the first fossil specimen to be assigned as a Neanderthal (in 1856) in the Neander Valley of western Germany.20 These fossil remains, which dated anywhere from 40,000 to 100,000 years in age, bore many similarities to modern humans, yet they also possessed distinct features. For example, the skull displayed prominent bony ridges above the eyes, unusually large teeth, a chin that receded, and a forehead that sloped backward. Debate centered on Neanderthal’s “human” status. Was he a primitive prehuman or simply a deformed human? [19. Isaac Asimov, Asimov’s Chronology of Science and Discovery (New York: Harper and Row, 1989), 353. 20. Ibid., 330–13.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 304-311). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· However, the Neanderthal fossils convinced many people that humanity’s age far exceeded 6,000 years, the age espoused by many self-described biblical literalists, who viewed the Genesis 1 creation days as 24-hour time periods. For many people, this finding greatly diminished the credibility of the biblical account of Adam and Eve. Though human evolution gained little direct support from Neanderthals, it indirectly gained favor. The scientific community seemed to have demonstrated biblical error regarding human origins. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 314-318). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· The first ape-human “intermediate” interpreted from the fossil record was discovered around 1890 on the Indonesian island of Java by Dutch paleontologist Marie Eugène François Thomas Dubois.21 This species, dubbed Pithecanthropus erectus (and later H. erectus), walked upright but had a brain size about 60 percent that of modern humans. While some anthropologists regarded “Java man” as one of humanity’s ancestors, controversy surrounded this conclusion. Still, this evidence seemed to substantiate human evolution. [Isaac Asimov, Asimov’s Chronology of Science and Discovery (New York: Harper and Row, 1989), 395–96.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 318-322). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· In 1924, anthropologist Raymond Dart uncovered a small skull in South Africa with a blend of ape and human features that represented (to the scientific community) humanity’s most primitive predecessor.22 This fossil, nicknamed the “Taung child,” was formally classified as Australopithecus africanus. Dart reasoned that the Taung child must have walked erect based on the location of its foramen magnum (the opening in the skull’s base that receives the spinal cord).23 As with Pithecanthropus, however, controversy swirled around the status of the Taung child in relation to modern humans. [22. Isaac Asimov, Asimov’s Chronology of Science and Discovery (New York: Harper and Row, 1989),, 488–89. 23. Roger Lewin, Principles of Human Evolution: A Core Textbook (Malden, MA: Blackwell Science, 1998), 264–66.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 323-328). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· The turning point for human evolution finally came in the late 1950s. After nearly three decades of labor, Mary Leakey discovered the Zinj fossil in East Africa.24 Almost immediately after this discovery (eventually classified as a robust Australopithecus), Louis Leakey unearthed the first Homo habilis specimen. Paleontologists considered this species the connection between the more primitive apelike australopithecines and H. erectus. These scientists also regarded H. habilis as the species responsible for the tools recovered in Olduvai Gorge and the first toolmaker in the human evolutionary pathway.25 [24. Roger Lewin, Principles of Human Evolution: A Core Textbook (Malden, MA: Blackwell Science, 1998),, 269–73. 25. Asimov, Asimov’s Chronology, 600–601.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 329-335). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· For many people, genetic comparisons between humans and the great apes further fill in the fossil evidence for human evolution. Such studies indicate a high degree of genetic similarity (98 percent) between humans and chimpanzees, for example. To evolutionary biologists, this resemblance means humans and chimps must have shared a common ancestor roughly 5 to 6 million years ago.26 [Asimov, Asimov’s Chronology,, 648–49.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 339-342). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Darwin’s circumstantial case has apparently been substantiated by such compelling evidence that H. James Birx (a visiting professor at Harvard University) wrote in the introduction to a new edition of The Descent of Man, “The myth of Creation as espoused by religious creationists and biblical fundamentalists has been replaced by the fact of evolution.…Despite the wishes of some to the contrary, the fact of evolution will not disappear.”27 [H. James Birx, introduction to The Descent of Man, by Charles Darwin, xix, xxiii.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 342-345). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· For Darwin, evidence of humanity’s “lowly origin” came from the “indelible stamp” of evolution on “his bodily frame.”29 But was he right? And what about David? Does his view, expressed in the Bible, have any merit at all? Is humanity a quirk of nature—a mere accident with no significance whatsoever? Or is man the crown of creation, made in the Creator’s image? Given the magnitude of these questions, one must carefully consider the data. Does the fossil record really support Darwin’s view of the “indelible stamp”? Or does the record reveal the need for an alternative theory, one based on David’s explanation—the biblical view of humanity’s origin? [Darwin, Descent of Man, 643.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 354-360). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

Chapter 2: Fossil Record Facts

· In 1912, Charles Dawson and Arthur Smith Woodward reported on fossils recovered from ancient gravels near Sussex, England. Pieces of a humanlike cranium, a partial apelike jaw, and a few worn-down molars were interpreted to come from an individual hominid (deemed Eoanthropus dawsoni) that represented a transitional intermediate between apes and humans. Called “Piltdown man,” the fragments displayed the very features that evolutionary biologists expected to see in the “missing link.” [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 366-370). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Better dating of the site of Piltdown man’s discovery and careful chemical and morphological analysis of the fossil specimens ultimately exposed what Alexander Kohn (onetime editor of the Journal of Irreproducible Results) called “the most elaborate scientific hoax ever perpetuated.”1 The fossils were actually carefully doctored modern remains stained with a dye to make them appear old. The cranium pieces were human. The jawbone fragment came from an orangutan. The teeth were carefully filed to fit the mandible and make them appear more humanlike. [Alexander Kohn, False Prophets: Fraud and Error in Science and Medicine, rev. ed. (Oxford, UK: Basil Blackwell, 1988), 133.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 376-380). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· The legendary Piltdown man forgery went unrecognized for nearly 40 years before a team of scientists exposed it as a fraud in 1953.2 Debate still continues as to the perpetrator’s identity and the motivation for his or her actions. Science historians also discuss why the scientific community so readily accepted Piltdown man as authentic and why it took so long to recognize the discovery as a forgery, since (at least in retrospect) many indicators along this line were quite evident. [Alexander Kohn, False Prophets: Fraud and Error in Science and Medicine, rev. ed. (Oxford, UK: Basil Blackwell, 1988), 133-41.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 380-384). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· In part, the ready acceptance of Piltdown man stemmed from an eagerness to find the missing link that would support Darwin’s model for human evolution with evidence from the fossil record. Piltdown man exactly fit the scientific community’s preconceived ideas as to what the transitional intermediate between humans and apes must look like. According to Kohn: Scientists, contrary to lay belief, do not work by collecting only “hard” facts and fitting together information based on them. Scientific investigation is also motivated by pursuit of recognition and fame, by hope and by prejudice. Dubious evidence is strengthened by strong hope: anomalies are fitted into a coherent picture with the help of cultural bias.3 [Alexander Kohn, False Prophets: Fraud and Error in Science and Medicine, rev. ed. (Oxford, UK: Basil Blackwell, 1988), 140.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 384-390). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Scientists are human, and from time to time their fallibility or bias can influence the scientific process. However, the scientific enterprise eventually roots out error and exposes fraud, though not always as quickly as might be desirable. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 392-393). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Some creationists capitalize on the Piltdown man forgery (along with a few other examples of dubious paleoanthropological finds). They generalize that hominid fossils are either fictitious or fraudulent.4 Others view the fossils as real but regard some to be apes (the australopithecines, for example) and some (such as Homo erectus and Neanderthals) as variants of modern humans.5 Any dating of fossils as older than 10,000 years in age is disputed and dismissed. [4. For a particularly egregious example, see Hank Hanegraaff, The Face That Demonstrates the Farce of Evolution (Nashville, TN: Word, 1998), 49–57; also see Ron Rhodes, The 10 Things You Should Know about the Creation vs. Evolution Debate (Eugene, OR: Harvest House, 2004), 79–89. 5. For some examples of this position, see Marvin L. Lubenow, Bones of Contention: A Creationist Assessment of Human Fossils (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 1992); Jack Cuozzo, Buried Alive: The Startling Truth about Neanderthal Man (Green Forest, AR: Master Books, 1998); Duane T. Gish, Evolution: The Fossils Still Say No! (El Cajon, CA: Institute for Creation Research, 1995), 209–331.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 393-398). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Although a few instances of fraud and error have occurred in the history of paleoanthropology, this doesn’t mean paleoanthropologists are dishonest or incompetent. In reality, most of these scientists, though typically committed to methodological naturalism (the notion that in science only mechanistic explanations based on the laws of physics and chemistry are permitted), display exemplary integrity and work hard at their discipline. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 409-412). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· The nomenclature used by paleoanthropologists to discuss the hominid fossil record can be misleading for the uninitiated. Scientists often refer to members of the genera Sahelanthropus, Orrorin, Ardipithecus, Australopithecus, Paranthropus, and Homo—all primates that walked erect—as humans. People unfamiliar with this practice commonly misinterpret the term “human” to indicate that human beings (as colloquially understood) existed as far back as 5 to 6 million years ago. This choice of words ignores the marked morphological and behavioral differences between these extinct hominids and modern humans. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 419-423). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Equally confusing, some paleoanthropologists call hominids—those that existed between about 500,000 years ago and the appearance of modern humans—Homo sapiens. This list includes some specimens of H. erectus, Homo antecessor, Homo heidelbergensis, and Homo neanderthalensis. Sometimes paleoanthropologists use the term “archaic Homo sapiens” in reference to these hominids. Again, this practice overlooks the significant behavioral differences and unique morphological characteristics that distinguish these extinct hominids from modern man. When referring to human beings (as popularly understood), paleoanthropologists use the terms “modern human,” “anatomically modern human,” or “Homo sapiens sapiens.” [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 424-429). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· However, nearly all paleoanthropologists agree that anatomically modern humans (H. sapiens sapiens) appear in the fossil record not much earlier than 100,000 years ago. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 434-435). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Based on genetic comparisons between humans and great apes, most evolutionary biologists believe that the human lineage must have arisen from an apelike ancestor about 6 to 5 million years ago. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 438-440). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· The oldest hominid fossil (Sahelanthropus tchadensis) now dates about 7 million years in age. Older than expected, this remarkable find was made in the central African nation of Chad—an area previously thought to have been unoccupied by hominids. The fossil exhibits surprisingly modern features. It appears that this hominid walked erect and possessed a brain close in size to that of a chimpanzee. S. tchadensis lived in both woodlands and green savannas. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 443-446). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Orrorin tugenensis fossils, which date at 6 million years old, have been recovered in Kenya. Paleoanthropologists found partial jaws, teeth, and arm, finger, and thigh bones. Analysis of its femurs suggests O. tugenensis also walked erect. This creature lived in a mixed woodland and open plain habitat. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 446-449). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Ardipithecus ramidus fossils dating at 5.8, 5.6, 5.2, and 4.4 million years in age were discovered in Ethiopia. In fact, about 45 percent of a complete skeleton exists for A. ramidus, including hand, foot, arm, leg, pelvic, and skull bones. A. ramidus walked erect and lived in a forest environment. Recent analysis of Ardipithecus teeth, 5.6 million years old, indicates that A. ramidus may actually constitute two species.7 This view assigns the 4.4-million-year-old specimens to A. ramidus and the older specimens to Ardipithecus kadabba. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 449-453). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Between 4 million and 2 million years ago, at least 11 different hominid species existed in central, eastern, and southern Africa. These species fall into three genera: Australopithecus, Paranthropus, and Kenyanthropus. At any given time during this era, from four to seven different species existed simultaneously.8 [Boyd and Silk, How Humans Evolved, 282–302.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 458-461). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· The oldest member of Australopithecus, Australopithecus anamensis, existed between 4.2 and 3.8 million years ago, based on fossils recovered near Lake Turkana in Kenya. Australopithecus afarensis fossils have been recovered in eastern Africa and date to between 4 and 3 million years old. “Lucy” (discovered in the early 1970s by Donald Johanson) is one of the best-known specimens. She is nearly 40 percent complete, with much of the postcranial skeleton intact.11 [Boyd and Silk, How Humans Evolved, 282–302.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 473-476). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Remains of Australopithecus bahrelghazali, dated at 3.2 million years ago, have been recovered in Chad. Some paleoanthropologists think, however, that A. bahrelghazali is properly classified as an A. afarensis. Australopithecus africanus lived in South Africa between 3.0 and 2.2 million years ago, based on the fossil record. One of the best-known A. africanus specimens is the “Taung child” discovered in 1924 by Dart. The Taung child was the first australopithecine found.12 [Boyd and Silk, How Humans Evolved, 282–302.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 477-481). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Australopithecus garhi lived in eastern Africa around 2.5 million years ago. The australopithecines, as a rule, did not use tools of any sort. However, some evidence indicates that A. garhi might have used crude implements to remove flesh from animal remains.13 [Boyd and Silk, How Humans Evolved, 282–302.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 481-483). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Members of the genus Paranthropus were once included in the genus Australopithecus. They were referred to as the “robust” australopithecines. Other members of Australopithecus were labeled “gracile.” Though their anatomy was similar, Paranthropus hominids were much hardier than these other australopithecines. Another distinguishing feature was their specialized dental and jaw anatomy, which permitted heavy chewing.14 [Boyd and Silk, How Humans Evolved, 282–302.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 484-487). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Currently, paleoanthropologists recognize three Paranthropus species. Paranthropus aethiopicus fossils recovered in East Africa date at 2.5 million years old. Paranthropus robustus fossils found in South Africa date to between 1.8 and 1.0 million years in age. The most robust Paranthropus of all, Paranthropus boisei, existed in East Africa between 2.2 and 1.3 million years ago.15 [Boyd and Silk, How Humans Evolved, 282–302.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 487-491). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Kenyanthropus is a newly recognized hominid genus and currently consists of one undisputed species, Kenyanthropus platyops. Fossil evidence places this hominid in eastern Africa between 3.5 and 3.2 million years ago. Like other australopithecines, Kenyanthropus possesses many apelike characteristics, though the limited number of fossil specimens available for study leaves much about its biology unknown. One defining feature is its remarkably flat face.16 [Boyd and Silk, How Humans Evolved, 282–302.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 491-495). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· According to the fossil record, the first hominid assigned to the genus Homo appeared just over 2 million years ago. Classified as Homo habilis, this hominid lived between about 2.4 and 1.5 million years ago. A closely related species, Homo rudolfensis, might have coexisted with H. habilis.17 These two hominids lived in eastern and southern Africa and might have even migrated into southwest Asia.18 [17. Boyd and Silk, How Humans Evolved, 294–97. 18. Abesalom Vekua et al., “A New Skull of Early Homo from Dmanisi, Georgia,” Science 297 (2002): 85–89.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 496-500). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Paleoanthropologists estimate that H. habilis’ brain size (650 to 800 cm3) was somewhat larger than that of the australopithecines, though many other features were quite apelike. In fact, some scientists think that H. habilis and H. rudolfensis are rightly classified as members of Australopithecus.19 [Boyd and Silk, How Humans Evolved, 294–97.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 500-503). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· H. habilis might have been the first hominid to use tools. Paleoanthropologists refer to this technology as Mode I (or Oldowan) technology.20 Mode I tools consisted of rock flakes chipped away from a stone core by using a rock called a hammer stone. The archeological record shows that this technology persisted for at least a million years with no perceptible change. [Boyd and Silk, How Humans Evolved, 315–38; Lewin, Principles of Human Evolution, 309–21.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 503-506). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Homo ergaster appeared in the fossil record about 1.8 million years ago in East Africa and showed up in Eurasia around 1.7 million years ago.21 The body proportions of H. ergaster more closely resembled those of a modern human’s than those of an australopithecine. This creature likely stood about five feet tall and possessed a brain size that ranged between 850 and 1,000 cm3. One of the best-known H. ergaster specimens is “Turkana boy.” This nearly complete skeleton, found in Kenya, dates about 1.8 million years old. Though still quite crude, H. ergaster’s technology was more sophisticated than that of H. habilis. [Boyd and Silk, How Humans Evolved, 340–43.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 507-512). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Mode II (or Acheulean) technology involved shaping stones into a variety of forms called bifaces: teardrop-shaped rocks (hand axes); rocks with a flat, sharp edge (cleavers); and triangular-shaped rocks (picks). [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 512-513). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Closely related to H. ergaster, H. erectus lived somewhere between 1.8 million and 100,000 years ago in Asia. Some paleoanthropologists refer to H. ergaster as the African H. erectus. “Java man” and “Peking man” are perhaps the two best-known H. erectus specimens. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 516-518). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· These hominids behaved in nonhuman ways. They used Mode III technology (also referred to as Mousterian in some instances). Though more sophisticated than Mode II, this technology was vastly inferior to Mode IV, which appeared with the advent of modern humans. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 525-527). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Neanderthals (H. neanderthalensis) appeared in the fossil record around 130,000 years ago and persisted until about 30,000 years ago. Neanderthals were confined to Europe and western Asia. Like H. heidelbergensis, they employed Mode III technology.24 [Boyd and Silk, How Humans Evolved, 360–67.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 527-530). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Paleoanthropologists typically interpret hominids in the fossil record within an evolutionary framework. They view hominids that existed from 7 million to 2 million years ago as transitional forms that gave rise to the Homo genus. Most think A. ramidus gave rise to A. anamensis, which in turn yielded A. afarensis. Some paleoanthropologists think A. afarensis then evolved to produce A. africanus. They suggest this hominid produced H. habilis. Others believe that A. afarensis was the ancestral species for H. habilis. Some paleoanthropologists regard Kenyanthropus as H. habilis’ direct ancestor. Almost all paleoanthropologists agree that Paranthropus represents an evolutionary side branch. Again, these scientists aren’t clear whether A. afarensis or A. africanus produced Paranthropus (see figure 2.3). Most paleoanthropologists say H. habilis gave rise to H. ergaster. However, this is where agreement ends. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 531-538). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· An alternative model, which has emerged relatively recently, maintains that modern humans evolved exclusively from African archaic H. sapiens populations and then migrated around the world to replace preexisting hominids. This model is called the out-of-Africa hypothesis, or the replacement model. According to this view, H. neanderthalensis and H. erectus are evolutionary side branches and dead ends,26 while racial differences among modern humans result from genetic drift and natural selection effects. [Lewin, Principles of Human Evolution, 386–89.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 547-551). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Given the current support for the out-of-Africa model, some paleoanthropologists have proposed a mostly out-of-Africa model. In this view, modern humans originated from African populations but interbred with hominids, such as H. erectus and H. neanderthalensis,27 thus contributing to humanity’s origin. [Lewin, Principles of Human Evolution, 386–89.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 552-555). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· The recent recovery of the “Toumai man” (Sahelanthropus tchadensis) skull in Chad raises many new questions. This specimen, uncovered in a surprising location (central Africa), was older than expected (about 7 million years in age) and possessed amazingly advanced features.29 According to science writer John Whitfield, the Toumai man discovery may be “the tip of that iceberg—one that could sink our current ideas about human evolution.”30 [29. Fazale R. Rana, “Toumai Man Offers Evolutionists No Hope,” Connections 4, nos. 3 and 4 (2002), 6–7. 30. John Whitfield, “Oldest Member of Human Family Found,” Nature News (2002): doi:10.1038/news020708-12.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 559-563). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

Chapter 3: A Scientific Creation Model

· Clearly, any stance that regards the universe and Earth as merely 6,000 to 10,000 years old lacks scientific credibility. However, to discount the biblical explanation for humanity based on this one creationist perspective disregards all other theologically credible interpretations of Genesis 1.1 As philosopher and theologian Norman Geisler wrote, “Indeed, many of the greatest champions of the highest view of Scripture have held divergent views regarding the age of the earth.”2 [1. J. P. Moreland and John Mark Reynolds, eds., Three Views on Creation and Evolution (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1999); David G. Hagopian, ed., The Genesis Debate: Three Views on the Days of Creation (Mission Viejo CA: Crux Press, 2001). 2. Norman L. Geisler, foreword in Genesis Debate, 12.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 584-588). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· God created the first humans (Adam and Eve) both physically and spiritually through direct intervention. Genesis 1:26–27 and 5:1–2 state that God created the first man and woman in His image. In these verses two different Hebrew verbs, ‘āśâ and bārā, translate as “make” and “create,” respectively. Both verbs communicate God’s direct action in creating human beings.5 Genesis 2:7 also describes God’s formation of Adam from the dust of the earth. Then God breathed life into Adam. Genesis 2:22 explains Eve’s creation from Adam’s side. The text clearly teaches that God Himself created the first human pair. [R. Laird Harris, Gleason L. Archer Jr., and Bruce K. Waltke, eds., Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament (Chicago: Moody, 1980), 1:701–2; Harris, Archer, and Waltke, Theological Wordbook, 2:127.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 623-628). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Some theistic evolutionists believe God intervened to create Adam and Eve’s spirit, though their physical makeup evolved from lower life-forms. Others say the human components—both body and spirit—evolved from earlier species. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 631-632). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· All humanity came from Adam and Eve. The RTB model treats Adam and Eve as the first human beings in history. A careful reading of Genesis 2–4 supports the couple’s historical existence. So does the inclusion of Adam in the Genesis 5 genealogy and in Luke’s genealogy of Jesus.6 [Luke 3:23–38.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 637-639). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Based on these passages, the RTB model predicts that without scientific limitations, investigation can trace humanity’s origin to one man and one woman. As a corollary to this prediction, the RTB model predicts that attempts to gauge humanity’s original population size will, at minimum, indicate that it was initially small. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 642-644). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Humanity originated in a single geographical location (the Garden of Eden). Genesis 2 teaches that after God created Adam, He placed him in the garden He’d planted in “the east, in Eden.” Here, God made Eve. The author of Genesis 2 (presumed to be Moses) treated the Garden of Eden as a specific geographical location. He even named the four rivers that ran through it—the Pishon, Gihon, Tigris, and Euphrates. After Adam and Eve disobeyed God, they were banished from this garden. This consequence reinforces the idea that the Garden of Eden was an actual place. Cain’s banishment to the land of Nod, said to be “east of Eden,” also indicates a specific location.7 [Genesis 2:8, 10–14, 22–23; 3:23; and 4:16, respectively.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 644-649). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Because the RTB model describes all humanity as coming from Adam and Eve, their early life and subsequent ejection from the Garden of Eden mean that humanity’s origin should be traceable to a single region. The best scholarship places the garden’s location in Mesopotamia, with the possibility that it extended into northern and eastern Africa. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 650-652). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· The Garden of Eden’s location has been the subject of endless debate throughout history. While the debate is not fully resolved, most theologians agree that the garden was located in one of two adjacent regions. With the land later called Israel as the frame of reference, Genesis 2:8 describes the garden’s location as “east, in Eden.” This implies that the garden was contained within a larger region called Eden.8 The mention of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers indicates the garden’s location within Mesopotamia (Genesis 2:14). However, the Pishon and Gihon rivers (also noted) are unknown. They might have been smaller river channels or part of the Tigris and Euphrates systems,9 or they might have disappeared becoming dry riverbeds.10 [8. Kenneth A. Mathews, The New American Commentary, vol. 1, Genesis 1–11:26 (Nashville, TN: Broadman and Holman, 1996), 200–201. 9. Ibid., 208. 10. Hugh Ross, The Genesis Question: Scientific Advances and the Accuracy of Genesis, 2nd ed. (Colorado Springs: NavPress, 2001), 78–79.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 654-660). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Along these lines, Old Testament archeologist K. A. Kitchen argues that these four rivers came together in Mesopotamia to form a single stream that ran into the Garden of Eden. Based on Kitchen’s analysis, the rivers are listed starting with the Pishon, located in a southwesterly direction and proceed in a counterclockwise fashion across the east to the Gihon, north to the Tigris, and finally northwest to the Euphrates. Kitchen proposes that the Garden of Eden was located at the northern end of the Persian Gulf and is now submerged under water.11 [K. A. Kitchen, On the Reliability of the Old Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2003), 428–30.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 661-665). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· It’s probable that the Garden of Eden was somewhere within Mesopotamia, but its boundaries might have extended into northern and eastern Africa. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 668-669). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· God created Adam and Eve relatively recently, between 10,000 and 100,000 years ago. Genesis 1 and 2 teach that making humans was God’s last creative act on the sixth creation day. From a scientific standpoint, this chronology indicates a relatively recent appearance of humanity on Earth—after the appearance of other land and sea animals in the fossil record. However, precisely dating the creation of Adam and Eve from the biblical text is not possible. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 670-674). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Gaps in the genealogies and the ambiguity of key words in the original Hebrew text render the best attempts at a biblical date for Adam and Eve as estimates only. If few gaps exist, the date calculates to around 10,000 years ago. If many gaps occur, the date falls closer to 100,000 years ago.13 It may be possible to limit the date for Adam and Eve’s creation, at least to some extent, by using extrabiblical sources to calibrate the Genesis 5 and 11 genealogies. [Ross, Genesis Question, 108–10.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 674-677). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Even so, it may be possible to calibrate the genealogies to some extent by using the accurate dates available for Abraham and Peleg. Biblical and extrabiblical historical records establish that Abraham lived about 4,000 years ago. Genesis 10:25 indicates that “in [Peleg’s] time the earth was divided.” If this refers to the breaking of land bridges that connected the western hemisphere continents to the eastern hemisphere, then an accurate date for Peleg can also be determined. Radiocarbon dating places the breaking of the Bering Land Bridge at 11,000 years ago.20 This event made human migration from Eurasia to North and South America virtually impossible until the development of modern ships. If life spans in the Genesis 11 genealogy are proportional to the passage of time (which may not be the case), then the dates for Abraham and Peleg place Noah’s flood at roughly 20,000 to 30,000 years ago, and the creation of Adam and Eve at a few tens of thousands of years earlier. [Scott A. Elias et al., “Life and Times of the Bering Land Bridge,” Nature 382 (1996): 60–63.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 698-706). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Humanity’s female lineage should trace back to an earlier date than the male lineage. Though all humanity came from Adam and Eve, scientific dating of humanity’s origin using genetic markers specific for the female lineage should measure older than those specific for the male lineage. This discrepancy results not because Eve came first but because the male line experienced a severe bottleneck at the time of the flood. The Bible teaches that the flood destroyed all humanity except for Noah, his wife, his three sons (Shem, Ham, and Japheth), and their wives.21 The four men on the ark were close blood relatives, but the women were not. Scientifically speaking, humanity’s male lineage effectively traces back to Noah, whereas the female lineage traces back much farther, closer to Eve.22 [21. Genesis 7:13, 21. 22. Ross, Genesis Question, 110–12.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 706-713). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· God prepared the planet for humanity’s advent, then created Adam and Eve at a special moment in Earth’s history. The Bible teaches the great significance of man, as David (among others) so eloquently expresses. Humanity is the crown of God’s creation.23 Of all His creatures, only human beings were made in God’s image.24 God gave humanity dominion over the earth and appointed people to be creation’s caretakers.25 [23. Psalm 8:4–9. 24. Genesis 1:26–27; 5:1–2. 25. Genesis 1:28–30.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 714-718). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Humanity, made in God’s image, displays unique characteristics distinct from those of all other creatures. While humanity shares physical qualities with animals, people stand alone in terms of their spiritual nature. Bārā, used both in Genesis 1:26–27 and Genesis 5:1–2 with reference to humanity’s creation, suggests God’s origination of something new.28 Not only were Adam and Eve fashioned (in an ‘āśâ manner) from preexisting material, but they were also created (bārā) as something new—something that never before existed. Both passages identify human beings alone as creatures made in God’s image. In this sense, people were made distinct from the animals God formed. [Harris, Archer, and Waltke, Theological Wordbook, 1:127–28.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 740-746). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· RTB’s model considers hominids to be animals created by God’s direct intervention for His purposes. They existed for a time, then went extinct. These remarkable creatures walked erect. They also possessed limited intelligence and emotional capacity. Such characteristics allowed them to employ crude tools and even adopt a low level of “culture,” much as baboons, gorillas, and chimpanzees do. But while the hominids were created by God’s command, they were not spiritual beings made in His image. This status was reserved for human beings. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 747-751). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· The RTB model maintains that while human beings reflect God’s image in their activities, hominids did not. The model asserts that humans are uniquely spiritual and hominids were not. The archeological record associated with hominid fossils supplies key data to evaluate this prediction. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 755-757). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Life spans of the first human beings were on the order of several hundred years and became significantly shorter after the flood. The Genesis 5 genealogy indicates that some of humanity’s patriarchs lived to be several hundred years old. The RTB model maintains that these ages are to be taken literally. Genesis 6:3 records that God deplored humanity’s rampant sinful behavior and intervened to shorten the maximum human life span from about 900 years to about 120 years. According to the RTB model, the genealogy of Genesis 11 documents the effects of this intervention—life spans of the patriarchs from Noah to Abraham grew progressively shorter. RTB’s model maintains that long life spans in the early era of human existence are scientifically possible. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 768-773). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Contrary to popular perception of the Genesis flood account, RTB’s model for human origins posits that the flood was geographically limited (confined to the environs of Mesopotamia), not global. Still, the RTB model considers the extent of the flood to be “universal” in that all humanity was impacted by it. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 776-778). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Humanity spread around the world from somewhere in or near the Middle East. Genesis 11:8 describes God’s intervention to force people to scatter all over the earth. Humanity had twice resisted God’s command to multiply and fill the earth—once before the flood and then again after.33 Finally, through God’s prompting, human global migration began. RTB’s model predicts that the spread of people around the world radiated outward from or near the Middle East. This migration took place in recent history and occurred with relative rapidity. On this basis RTB’s model also predicts that human civilization started primarily in the vicinity of the Middle East and spread from there around the world. [Genesis 1:28; 9:7.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 781-787). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· RTB’s Human Origins Creation Model Predictions 1. Humanity traces back to one woman (Eve) and one man (Noah). 2. Humanity’s early population size was relatively small. 3. Humanity originated in a single location in or near the Middle East. 4. Humanity’s origin dates between 10,000 and 100,000 years ago. 5. The origin of the female lineage (Eve) predates the origin of the male lineage (Noah). 6. God created humanity at the “just-right” time in Earth’s history. 7. Human culture appears and expands explosively in the archeological record since humanity’s origin. 8. Humans share anatomical, physical, biochemical, and genetic similarities with the extinct hominids as well as with great apes and other animals. 9. Humans are behaviorally distinct (in ways that reflect God’s image) from the earlier hominids, the great apes, and other animals. 10. A universal but local flood, that impacted all of humanity, shaped human history. 11. Human life spans (once longer than 900 years) became progressively shorter after the flood. 12. Humanity spread around the world from in or near the Middle East relatively recently. 13. The seeds of human civilization and agriculture had their birth in or near the Middle East. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 792-806). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

PART II: THE SONG OF  SCIENCE

Chapter 4: It’s All in the Genes

· DNA is an extremely large molecular complex consisting of two parallel chains or strands (see figure 4).3 These paired chains twist around each other to form the widely recognized DNA double helix. To form DNA’s molecular chains, the cell’s machinery links together subunit molecules called nucleotides. The cell uses four different nucleotides (abbreviated A, G, C, and T) to construct DNA’s molecular chains. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 856-859). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Biochemists refer to the segments of DNA that contain the information needed to make proteins as genes. Each gene corresponds to a single protein. An organism’s DNA does not consist of genes exclusively. Some of the DNA segments that lie within or between genes do not specify proteins. Biochemists call these DNA regions nongenic, or noncoding.5 [Roderic D. M. Page and Edward C. Holmes, Molecular Evolution: A Phylogenetic Approach (Malden, MA: Blackwell Science, 1998), 37–88; Wen-Hsiung Li, Molecular Evolution (Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, 1997), 7–34.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 862-865). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Biochemists have identified numerous types of mutations. The term “substitutions” refers to mutations that replace one nucleotide in the DNA sequence with another. “Insertions” refers to mutations that add nucleotides to the DNA sequence, and “deletions” describes nucleotide losses from a DNA sequence. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 871-873). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Mutations that occur in genes are seldom beneficial. They alter information and cause the structure of the protein specified by that gene to become distorted. Because of the structure-altering effect of mutations, many are harmful or deleterious. However, sometimes mutations can be neutral in their effect. Biochemists tend to believe that mutations occurring in noncoding regions are mostly neutral, since these DNA regions don’t specify proteins. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 873-876). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Molecular anthropologists believe that natural selection doesn’t operate on neutral mutations. Therefore, over long periods of time, these changes in DNA sequences should accrue at a roughly constant rate (given that the neutral mutation rate does not vary). This constancy turns DNA sequence differences into a molecular clock.9 When molecular anthropologists know the mutation rate (nucleotide substitutions per year), they can estimate the coalescence time—the time since the DNA sequences (and hence populations) diverged from the shared ancestral sequence (population). Molecular clock analysis estimates the timing of humanity’s origin and spread around the globe. [Page and Holmes, Molecular Evolution, 251–61; Li, Molecular Evolution, 215–35.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 894-899). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· The human similarity is observed worldwide, regardless of race or ethnicity. The limited geographical range of the great ape species, contrasted to the widespread geographical distribution and extensive biological variation of humans, makes this observation impressive. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 909-911). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· More recent work (published in 2002) highlights this unusual genetic unity.12 A comparison of 377 DNA regions for 1,056 individuals from 52 different population groups found that 93 to 95 percent of the (small) genetic variation occurs within all populations and only 3 to 5 percent of the genetic variability occurs between populations. [Noah A. Rosenberg et al., “Genetic Structure of Human Populations,” Science 298 (2002): 2381–85; Mary-Claire King and Arno G. Motulsky, “Mapping Human History,” Science 298 (2002): 2342–43.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 911-914). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· What do these finds indicate about humanity’s natural history? Molecular anthropologists pose what they sometimes call the “Garden-of-Eden hypothesis” to explain the limited genetic diversity. This model maintains that humanity had a recent origin in a single location and the original population size must have been quite small. From this one location, humanity expanded rapidly to occupy all the geographical regions of the planet.13 [Boyd and Silk, How Humans Evolved, 393.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 914-917). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Does an African origin of humanity represent a problem for RTB’s creation model? Not necessarily. Considering that some biblical scholars understand the Garden of Eden to extend from Mesopotamia and into Africa, Cush may well have been Ethiopia. If this identification is accurate, then there is no conflict between the data and RTB’s model. What if the Garden of Eden is rightly understood to be confined exclusively to Mesopotamia? The data that locate humanity’s origin in Africa need not be seen as problematic for a biblical model. Without question, African populations are humanity’s oldest (not only because of genetic diversity but also because African DNA sequences encompass DNA sequences from all other human population groups). This inclusion, however, does not mean these groups originated in Africa. When molecular anthropologists use genetic data to locate humanity’s origin (and spread), they assume that the current location of population groups represents their location throughout human history. This supposition remains open to question, particularly because many human population groups have migrated as much as thousands of miles throughout their history. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 936-944). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Moreover, the Bible teaches that, as a result of their sin, Adam and Eve were banished from the Garden of Eden. So humanity’s population growth began outside the garden’s confines.18 An origin of humanity in East Africa could easily match this scenario. [Genesis 3:23–24.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 946-948). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· One of the first and most widely used genetic techniques to study humanity’s origin involves characterization of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). This circular piece of DNA resides inside mitochondria (organelles found in nearly all cells of the human body). Most human cells possess a large number of mitochondria, with muscle cells having the most. Molecular anthropologists find mtDNA nearly ideal for the study of human origins because of its relatively simple pattern of inheritance and its rapid mutation rate.20 [Immo E. Scheffler, Mitochondria (New York: Wiley, 1999), 326–27.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 961-964). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Mitochondrial-DNA analysis produces genealogies that trace humanity’s maternal lineage because this type of DNA is inherited exclusively from one’s mother. All mitochondria in the human body derive from the egg cell; the sperm cell does not contribute any mtDNA during the fertilization process. After fertilization, the zygote (fertilized egg) undergoes several initial rounds of cell division. During this process, the resulting daughter cells divide up the egg cell’s original population of mitochondria. Later, as the embryo’s cells continue to undergo cell division and specialization, the egg’s original mitochondria produce more mitochondria. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 965-969). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· In 1980, biochemist Wesley Brown conducted one of the first mtDNA studies designed to probe humanity’s origin.21 Limited in scope (only 21 samples from racially and geographically diverse sources), this study rather crudely characterized mtDNA sequences with provocative results—humanity originated recently (about 180,000 years ago) from a small original population. Seven years later a team led by biochemist Allan C. Wilson carried out a much more extensive study using the same methodology. This time, however, the researchers analyzed mtDNA from 147 people taken from five geographical regions. The results led scientists to conclude that humanity originated from one woman. She came from a single location (apparently Africa) roughly 200,000 years ago.22 The science community named her “mitochondrial Eve.” [21. Wesley M. Brown, “Polymorphism in Mitochondrial DNA of Humans as Revealed by Restriction Endonuclease Analysis,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 77 (1980): 3605–9. 22. Rebecca L. Cann, Mark Stoneking, and Allan C. Wilson, “Mitochondrial DNA and Human Evolution,” Nature 325 (1987): 31. For the story behind the first mitochondrial DNA studies on human origins, see Michael H. Brown, The Search for Eve: Have Scientists Found the Mother of Us All? (New York: Harper and Row, 1990).] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 972-979). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Wilson’s team addressed these concerns in a 1991 study of mitochondrial DNA from 189 people. They included DNA samples from native Africans and used much more comprehensive sequencing techniques.24 This study confirmed the earlier results. They pointed to a recent origin of humanity (between 249,000 and 166,000 years ago) from one location (apparently Africa) from a very small population of women. Since then, molecular anthropologists have conducted a number of mtDNA studies. All results square with the original research.25 [Linda Vigilant et al., “African Populations and the Evolution of Human Mitochondrial DNA,” Science 253 (1991): 1503–7.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 982-986). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· A team of Swiss and German scientists conducted one of the most comprehensive studies.26 These researchers examined the entire mtDNA sequences (16,500 base pairs) taken from 53 people representing a diversity of races and geographies. The results (reported in 2000) again placed humanity’s origin in a single location, apparently Africa. This study indicates that women appear to have had a relatively recent beginning (171,500 ± 50,000 years ago) from a small population. The mtDNA genetic fingerprints paint a picture of humanity’s origin consistent with the biblical account and RTB’s model. [Max Ingman et al., “Mitochondrial Genome Variation and the Origin of Modern Humans,” Nature 408 (2000): 708–13; S. Blair Hedges, “Human Evolution: A Start for Population Genomics,” Nature 408 (2000): 652–53.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 987-991). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Researchers must pay careful attention to the source of mitochondria and hence of mtDNA. Hetero- and triplasmy make mtDNA mutation rates and molecular clocks appear to run faster than scientists originally thought.31 Corrections to mtDNA mutation rates that factor in heteroplasmy place mitochondrial Eve perhaps as recently as 50,000 years ago32—squarely within the range predicted by the RTB model (between 10,000 and 100,000 years ago). [31. Gibbons, “Calibrating the Mitochondrial Clock,” 28–29. 32. Hugh Ross and Sam Conner, “Eve’s Secret to Growing Younger,” Facts and Faith 12, no. 1 (1998), 1–2.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 1000-1004). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Though molecular clock analysis is relatively straightforward in principle, its application is problematic. One chief difficulty centers on the clock’s calibration. In practice, calibration is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to accomplish.33 Researchers simply cannot determine with any real accuracy mutation rates and the changes in these rates over time. Scientists typically must estimate the likely high and low values for mutation rates. [Dan Graur and William Martin, “Reading the Entrails of Chickens: Molecular Timescales of Evolution and the Illusion of Precision,” Trends in Genetics 20 (2004): 80–86.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 1006-1010). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Other factors complicate use of mtDNA molecular clocks. Researchers have discovered that mutation rates differ from region to region within mtDNA. These scientists also observed that mutations accumulate at a faster rate with age.35 Both factors confuse calibration of mtDNA clocks. Age-accelerated mutation rates render genetic diversity artificially high. [Erika Hagelberg, “Recombination or Mutation Rate Heterogeneity? Implications for Mitochondrial Eve,” Trends in Genetics 19 (2003): 84–90; Yuichi Michikawa et al., “Aging-Dependent Large Accumulation of Point Mutations in the Human mtDNA Control Region for Replication,” Science 286 (1999): 774–79.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 1014-1017). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Molecular anthropologists also use DNA associated with the Y chromosome (the male sex chromosome) to characterize humanity’s origin. Y-chromosomal DNA analysis serves as the counterpart to mtDNA analysis. This technique traces humanity’s origin through the paternal (as opposed to the maternal) lineage because Y-chromosomal DNA passes exclusively from father to son. (Researchers regard this simple pattern of inheritance as ideal for studying human origins.)38 [For example, see Michael P. H. Stumpf and David B. Goldstein, “Genealogical and Evolutionary Inference with the Human Y Chromosome,” Science 291 (2001): 1738–42.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 1036-1040). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· In 1995, one of the first Y-chromosomal DNA studies to probe humanity’s origin examined a 729-base-pair DNA sequence in 38 men constituting a worldwide sample.39 Researchers found, to their surprise, that the sequence displayed no variation at all. They concluded that men originated no more than 270,000 years ago from a small population. [Robert L. Dorit, H. Akashi, and W. Gilbert, “Absence of Polymorphism at the ZFY Locus on the Human Y Chromosome,” Science 268 (1995): 1183–85; Svante Pääbo, “The Y Chromosome and the Origin of All of Us (Men),” Science 268 (1995): 1141–42.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 1045-1048). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Another study followed almost immediately. This second study examined a 2,600-base-pair segment of the Y chromosome. Again it indicated a recent origin for humanity (around 188,000 years ago) from a small population (less than 10,000).40 More recent Y-chromosome studies indicate that humanity came from a single location (apparently Africa).41 [40. Michael F. Hammer, “A Recent Common Ancestry for Human Y Chromosomes,” Nature 378 (1995): 376–78. 41. For example, see Ann Gibbons, “Y Chromosome Shows That Adam Was an African,” Science 278 (1997): 804–5; Mark Seielstad et al., “A View of Modern Human Origins from Y Chromosome Microsatellite Variation,” Genome Research 9 (1999): 558–67; Ornella Semino et al., “Ethiopians and Khoisan Share the Deepest Clades of the Human Y-Chromosome Phylogeny,” American Journal of Human Genetics 70 (2002): 265–68.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 1048-1051). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· These later studies used much more expansive regions of the Y chromosome. Their findings indicate that humanity’s male lineage originated around 40,000 to 60,000 years ago.42 They also verify that humanity’s origin traces to one location and to a small population. The results fall in line with yet another study that placed humanity’s origin between 35,000 and 47,000 years ago.43 [42. Jonathan K. Pritchard et al., “Population Growth of Human Y Chromosomes: A Study of Y Chromosome Microsatellites,” Molecular Biology and Evolution 16 (1999): 1791–98; Russell Thomson et al., “Recent Common Ancestry of Human Y Chromosomes: Evidence from DNA Sequence Data,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 97 (2000): 7360–65; Peter A. Underhill et al., “Y Chromosome Sequence Variation and the History of Human Populations,” Nature Genetics 26, (2000): 358–61. 43. L. Simon Whitfield et al., “Sequence Variation of the Human Y Chromosome,” Nature 378 (1995): 379–80.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 1052-1056). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Molecular anthropologists find the large discrepancy between the dates for mitochondrial Eve (150,000 to 200,000 years ago) and “Y-chromosomal Adam” (40,000 to 60,000 years ago) perplexing. To explain this difference, scientists suggest that males living prior to Y-chromosomal Adam failed to pass along their genes and hence their genetic fingerprint. This lack of inheritance could occur if all their descendants had died out. As a lone survivor, Y-chromosomal Adam, born around 50,000 years ago, thus happened to have his genetic fingerprint take over the entire human population.44 [Elizabeth Pennisi, “Tracking the Sexes by Their Genes,” Science 291 (2001): 1733–34; Carl Zimmer, “After You, Eve,” Natural History, March 2001, 32–35.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 1061-1065). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· RTB’s human origins model actually predicts this discrepancy between the maternal and paternal dates. The most recent common ancestor for men traces to Noah, not Adam, because of the flood. In contrast, women’s common ancestor traces further back, closer to Eve, because the wives of Noah and his sons were probably not directly related to one another (see “Humanity’s female lineage should trace back to an earlier date than the male lineage” in chapter 3). [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 1065-1068). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· A recent study, reported in 2004 by molecular anthropologists from the University of Arizona, offers another explanation for the differences between the mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal dates for humanity’s origin.45 These researchers noted that the mtDNA dates were consistently twice those measured using Y chromosomes for three population groups (Khoisan, Mongolians, and Papua New Guineans). This constant difference goes beyond mere coincidence and reveals a pattern in the data. They also failed to detect any evidence in the Y-chromosomal data for the so-called selective sweep that would have occurred if Y-chromosomal Adam were a lone survivor among many different males. The researchers suggested that mitochondrial Eve and Y-chromosomal Adam lived at the same time and that the disparity in the mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal dates is not real. Rather this difference reflects a larger effective population size for females than for males. This explanation makes sense in light of the flood account because Noah and his sons would represent a single Y-chromosome sequence. The wives of Noah and his sons would have had up to four different mtDNA sequences, making it appear as if the effective population size of the female lineage was larger than the male lineage. [Jason A. Wilder, Zahra Mobasher, and Michael F. Hammer, “Genetic Evidence for Unequal Effective Population Sizes of Human Females and Males,” Molecular Biology and Evolution 21 (2004): 2047–57.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 1069-1078). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· A 1986 study looked beyond mtDNA and the Y chromosome to a small DNA segment of the β-globin gene cluster. Investigators used genetic material from 601 individuals of European, Indian, Asian, and African descent. These scientists also reached the conclusion that humanity began from a small population living in one location (apparently Africa) and that from there people rapidly moved around the world.47 [J. S. Wainscoat et al., “Evolutionary Relationships of Human Populations from an Analysis of Nuclear DNA Polymorphisms,” Nature 319 (1986): 491–93.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 1088-1091). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Similar outcomes arise from more recent work. In 2001, a Swedish research team determined that humanity must have originated from a small population in a single location (Africa). Their conclusion was based on the genetic variation of the monoamine oxidase A and B genes found on the X chromosome.48 Likewise, in 2003, investigators from the University of Utah observed the genetic variation of the CYP1A2 cytochrome P450 gene (a gene that plays a role in metabolizing drugs and toxins) in 113 individuals. They found it to be consistent with an origin of humanity from a single location.49 [48. Jorune Balciuniene et al., “The Geographic Distribution of Monoamine Oxidase Haplotypes Supports a Bottleneck during the Dispersion of Modern Humans from Africa,” Journal of Molecular Evolution 52 (2001): 157–63. 49. S. P. Wooding et al., “DNA Sequence Variation in a 3.7-kb Noncoding Sequence 5’ of the CYP1A2 Gene: Implications for Human Population History and Natural Selection,” American Journal of Human Genetics 71 (2002): 528–42.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 1091-1096). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Two studies conducted in 2001 illustrate the potential of pseudogenes to illuminate early human history. These studies examined the glucocerebrosidase pseudogene and the Type I keratin pseudogene (φhHaA), respectively, and concluded that humanity’s origin occurred in a single location around 200,000 years ago.50 [Hermelita Winter et al., “Human Type I Keratin Pseudogene φ hHaA Has Functional Orthologs in the Chimpanzee and Gorilla: Evidence for Recent Inactivation of the Human Gene after the Pan-Homo Divergence,” Human Genetics 108 (2001): 37–42; Rosa Martínez-Arias et al., “Sequence Variability of a Human Pseudogene,” Genome Research 11 (2001): 1071–85.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 1100-1102). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· A study reported in 2004 indicates that endogenous retroviral DNA sequences found in the human genome provide important insight into the human genetic diversity and consequently the origin of humanity.51 This work focused on the HERV-K (HML2) family of endogenous retroviruses. Researchers screened seven HERV-K sequences from 109 DNA samples collected from people in Africa, Europe, Asia, and Southeast Asia. The genetic diversity of these DNA sequence elements indicates that humanity had a recent origin from a single location (Africa). [Catriona Macfarlane and Peter Simmonds, “Allelic Variation of HERV-K (HML-2) Endogenous Retroviral Elements in Human Populations,” Journal of Molecular Evolution 59 (2004): 642–56.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 1106-1110). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Over the years, molecular anthropologists and geneticists have used at least 14 different methods to probe humanity’s origin and early history. Conclusions of these genetic studies align well (given each method’s limitations and the uncertainties associated with molecular clock analysis). And they are remarkably consistent with RTB’s creation model. The scientific evidence continues to indicate that humanity had a recent origin from a single location and involved a small population size. The genetic fingerprint of all humanity traces to one man and one woman. The timing and location of humanity’s origin are consistent with the predictions of RTB’s human origins model. Humanity’s population dynamics during its early history agree with the biblical account. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 1203-1209). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· To be clear, evolutionary biologists do not think humanity originated from one man and one woman. Rather, they maintain that large populations of either the hominid predecessors to modern humans or the first modern humans suffered a catastrophic collapse. When this occurred, scientists claim, genetic diversity was lost and the first humans went through a genetic bottleneck. After suffering the population collapse, the humans who supposedly endured the bottleneck are thought to have experienced rapid population growth and expansion to fill the planet. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 1220-1223). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

Chapter 5 Bones and Stones

· The fossil record and archeological data clearly show that by 40,000 years ago people were present in Africa, Eurasia, and even Australia.2 Anthropologists, however, currently lack consensus on the exact timing of humanity’s appearance in the fossil record. Between about 40,000 and 80,000 years ago, humans are largely nonexistent in the fossil record, though controversial archeological evidence suggests they might have lived during this era.3 [2. Roger Lewin, Principles of Human Evolution: A Core Textbook (Malden, MA: Blackwell Science, 1998), 384–442. 3. Christopher Stringer and Robin McKie, African Exodus: The Origins of Modern Humanity (New York: Henry Holt, 1996), 156; Li Jin and Bing Su, “Natives or Immigrants: Modern Human Origin in East Asia,” Nature Reviews: Genetics 1 (2001): 126–33.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 1282-1286). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Scripture doesn’t explicitly state what the image of God is. Over the centuries, theologians have discussed and debated this concept. Some take the image of God to describe humanity’s spiritual resemblance to God. Others take it to refer to humanity’s relational capacity, while some theologians think the image of God allows humans to function as God’s representatives or viceroys on Earth.5 A consensus of these three approaches identifies four characteristics:6 1. Human beings possess a moral component. They inherently understand right and wrong and have a strong innate sense of justice. 2. Humans are spiritual beings who recognize a reality beyond this universe and physical life. Mankind intuitively acknowledges God’s existence and has a propensity toward worship and prayer. 3. Humans relate to God, themselves, and other people and creatures. There is a relational aspect to God’s image. 4. Humanity’s mental capacity reflects God’s image. Human beings possess the ability to reason and think logically. They can engage in symbolic thought. People express themselves with complex, abstract language. They are aware of the past, present, and future. Human beings display intense creativity through art, music, literature, science, and technological inventions. [5. C. John Collins, Science and Faith: Friends or Foes? (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2003), 124–27. 6. Millard J. Erickson, Christian Theology, 2nd ed. (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 1998), 517–36; Wayne Grudem, Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Biblical Doctrine (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1994), 442–50.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 1298-1310). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· The Ethiopian finds, unearthed and described by a team headed by UC Berkeley paleoanthropologist Tim White, consisted primarily of three fossilized crania—two adult and one juvenile. Through the use of a radiometric technique (argon-argon dating), the research team dated the fossil specimens between 160,000 and 154,000 years in age. The team interpreted the anatomy of the three crania to consist of a mosaic blend of “archaic” and “modern” features. The age and anatomical characteristics led the researchers to assign the Ethiopian specimens to an intermediate position between the ancient Homo rhodesiensis and Homo sapiens sapiens (human beings). Scientists classified these fossils as a new subspecies, Homo sapiens idaltu.14 But these paleoanthropologists were quite clear—H. sapiens idaltu was anatomically distinct from modern humans. [14. Tim D. White et al., “Pleistocene Homo sapiens from Middle Awash, Ethiopia,” Nature 423 (2003): 742–47; J. Desmond Clark et al., “Stratigraphic, Chronological and Behavioural Contexts of Pleistocene Homo sapiens from Middle Awash, Ethiopia,” Nature 423 (2003): 747–52.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 1368-1374). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· But at 40,000 years ago, something quite amazing happened. Until then, according to paleoanthropologist Christopher Stringer, hominids had simply marked (cultural) time: For millennia upon millennia, we [hominids] had been churning out the same forms of stone utensils, for example. But about 40,000 years ago, a perceptible shift in our handiwork took place. Throughout the Old World, tool kits leapt in sophistication with the appearance of Upper Paleolithic style implements. Signs of use of ropes, bone spear points, fishhooks and harpoons emerge, along with sudden manifestations of sculptures, paintings, and musical instruments.…We also find evidence of the first long-distance exchange of stones and beads. Objects made of mammal bones and ivory, antlers, marine and freshwater shells, fossil coral, limestone, schist, steatite, jet, lignite, hematite and pyrite were manufactured. Materials were chosen with extraordinary care: some originated hundreds of miles from their point of manufacture.…It is an extraordinary catalogue of achievements that seem to have come about virtually from nowhere—though obviously they did have a source. The question is: What was it?18 [Stringer and McKie, African Exodus, 195–96.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 1402-1411). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· The so-called archaic H. sapiens found in the fossil record between 250,000 and 100,000 years ago used tools categorized as Middle Stone Age, Mode III, Middle Paleolithic, or Mousterian, depending on the archeological site’s geographical location. The tools and associated technology were more advanced than those used by H. erectus (H. erectus used Mode II or Acheulean technology). Still, they were relatively unsophisticated.19 [Klein with Edgar, Dawn of Human Culture, 230–37.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 1418-1422). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Between 50,000 and 40,000 years ago, a quantum leap occurred in tool inventories, manufacturing techniques, and usages.20 This new technology (called Late Stone Age, Mode IV, or Late Paleolithic) includes a wide range of sophisticated implements made by complex manufacturing techniques. In addition to employing stone, the first humans used ivory, bone, and wood. They transported the raw materials used for tool production significant distances. [Richard G. Klein, The Human Career: Human Biological and Cultural Origins, 2nd ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999), 520–29; Encyclopedia of Human Evolution and Prehistory, ed. Eric Delson et al., 2nd ed. (New York: Garland, 2000), s.v. “late Paleolithic” and “later Stone Age.”] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 1424-1428). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Paleoanthropologists have discovered several sites around the world that contain evidence for artistic expression, but none has been studied as much as the European ones.27 For many, the cave art found in France and Spain symbolizes prehistoric art and illustrates the dramatic behavioral differences between humans and the hominids. Archeologists have discovered about 150 caves containing paintings and carvings. Perhaps the two most spectacular caches of cave art come from the Lascaux and Chauvet caves of France. These two sites date to 17,000 and 32,400 years in age, respectively.28 The artwork found in them consists of human images and depictions of large mammals, such as deer, bison, horses, and mammoths. The Chauvet Cave uniquely depicts predators such as hyenas and leopards.29 The cave paintings were made with pigments prepared from charcoal, iron oxide and manganese oxide, minerals, and plant oils. [27. Lewin, Principles of Human Evolution, 469–74. 28. Ibid. 29. Klein, Human Career, 545–53.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 1478-1486). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· In addition to expressing themselves through visual art, ancient humans made music. Archeologists have found musical instruments in sites located in northern Africa, Europe, and Asia—places occupied by some of the earliest known men and women.33 Typically, these instruments were created from the long bones of birds and functioned as whistles and flutes. In some cases, percussion instruments have also been recovered. Recently, a team of German archeologists reported the discovery of one of the world’s oldest musical instruments in Geissenklösterle, a cave near Ulm in southern Germany.34 The team unearthed an ivory flute, dated to between 30,000 and 37,000 years of age, that was manufactured and played by some of the first humans in Europe. [33. Encyclopedia of Human Evolution and Prehistory, 2nd ed., “late Paleolithic.” 34. Achim Schneider, “Ice-Age Musicians Fashioned Ivory Flute,” Nature News (2004): doi:10.1038/news041213-14.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 1502-1509). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· A significant pattern—with respect to human origins—was recently observed when archeologists compared the art of the Chauvet Cave with that of Altamira and Lascaux.36 Though the Chauvet Cave art dates to 30,000 years in age, its sophistication is no different from that of Altamira and Lascaux artwork, which dates to between 12,000 and 17,000 years in age. The quality of the cave art does not display a progression from simple representations to complex. The representations are complex from the outset. [36. Michael Balter, “New Light on the Oldest Art,” Science 283 (1999): 920–22; H. Valladas et al., “Paleolithic Paintings: Evolution of Prehistoric Cave Art,” Nature 413 (2001): 479.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 1518-1521). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Anthropologist Anthony Sinclair noted: We imagine that the first artists worked with a small range of materials and techniques, and produced a limited range of representations of the world around them. As new materials and new techniques were developed, we should see this pattern of evolution in the archeological record. Yet for many outlets of artistic expression—cave paintings, textiles, ceramics, and musical instruments—the evidence increasingly refuses to fit. Instead of a gradual evolution of skills, the first modern humans in Europe were in fact astonishingly precocious artists.37 [37. Sinclair, “Art of the Ancients,” 774–75.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 1521-1526). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Clothing use also appears to be a practice associated exclusively with humans. Archeologists lack direct evidence for clothes, because skins and furs don’t survive long. The recovery of ivory needles (with eyes) from sites that date to around 40,000 years ago, however, can be considered indirect evidence of sewing because these devices were needed to manufacture wearing apparel. As mentioned in the last chapter (see “Lice” in chapter 4), the origin of human body lice provides an indirect proxy for the first garments. Body lice are obligatory ectoparasites that require human attire to survive. The origin of body lice coincides with the origin of clothes. Based on the genetic variation of a global sample of such lice, it appears that these lice originated around 72,000 years ago (± 42,000 years).38 This result indicates that clothes came into use as soon as humanity began. It also implies that hominids never got dressed. If they did, body lice would predate humanity. [Ralf Kittler, Manfred Kayser, and Mark Stoneking, “Molecular Evolution of Pediculus humanus and the Origin of Clothing,” Current Biology 13 (2003): 1414–17; J. Travis, “The Naked Truth? Lice Hint at a Recent Origin of Clothing,” Science News 164 (2003): 118.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 1528-1535). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Frequently, archeologists examine grave sites looking for evidence of burial practices as signs of ritual behavior. Some findings suggest that Neanderthals (see chapter 12 for more details) and other hominids might have buried their dead. But these burial practices appear nonritualistic and relatively simple.39 The Neanderthals dug shallow graves that contained few if any artifacts. Human burial practices contrast sharply.40 Often multiple burial plots are found together. Occasionally they appear to comprise a graveyard or cemetery. Large rocks covered some graves. Such stones may reflect ritual behavior and also a desire to protect and preserve the human body. [39. Klein, Human Career, 550–53. 40. Ibid.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 1540-1546). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· A grave site in Russia provides one of the most striking examples of ritualistic burials.41 Dug into permafrost, the Sungir grave site dates to about 22,000 years ago. Though older grave sites are known in France, the elaborate nature of the burial at the Sungir site makes it notable. [Klein, Human Career, 551–52.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 1548-1550). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Currently, archeologists lack a rigorous date for the onset of religious expression. This human behavior is much more difficult to identify and interpret than is art, music, or jewelry use. However, it is safe to say that spiritual activity dates to at least 28,000 years ago. Ritual burials and possible religious expression (through art) appear unique to human beings. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 1554-1556). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· The culture and technology displayed by the earliest human beings indicate that they possessed: (1) advanced cognitive ability; (2) the capacity for symbolic thought; (3) a powerful imagination; (4) superior craftsmanship; (5) inventiveness and superior adaptability; (6) a driving desire for artistic and musical expression; and (7) ritual behaviors and religious activity. Theologians generally consider all these characteristics as defining features of God’s image in humans. None of the hominids that precede humans in the fossil record displayed these unique behaviors. Nor did they live in complex societies with tight social cohesion. These first human societies promoted the care of more vulnerable older members, who in turn cared for the children and became the source of knowledge for the next generation. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 1562-1568). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Evolutionary biologists and anthropologists (for the most part) agree that a sharp difference exists between the culture and technology of humankind and those observed for hominids existing between 250,000 and 50,000 years ago. Frequently, scientists refer to this quantum change in behavior as the “dawn of human culture,” the “human revolution,” a “creative explosion,” the “great leap forward,” or the “sociocultural big bang.”42 [Klein with Edgar, Dawn of Human Culture, 261.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 1571-1575). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

Chapter 6: The Best Possible Time

· Reasons to Believe (RTB) biblical creation model predicts the timing of humanity at a special moment in Earth’s history—one ideal for people to enjoy the best possible physical conditions, not only for their survival but also to accommodate a large population, global occupation, civilization, and high-technology transportation and communication systems.1 [Genesis 1:26–31; 9:1, 7; 11:7–8; Daniel 12:4; Matthew 28:18–20; Revelation 9:13–19; 18:11–18.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 1651-1654). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· But after Earth formed, huge asteroids and comets pelted the planet for three-quarters of a billion years, turning the planet at times into a molten mass.2 X-ray radiation and large, random changes in the Sun’s brightness also prevented the survival of any life during Earth’s first 550 million years3 Once the first life-forms did appear, these simple organisms needed nearly another 4 billion years to process and redistribute Earth’s heavy elements into forms essential to human survival—and to the possibility of human civilization (see “Why Only Simple Life for So Long?”4). In other words, human civilization could not have arrived, survived, and thrived on Earth any earlier than it did. However, conditions in the Milky Way Galaxy (MWG) dictated that civilization couldn’t have come much later, either. [2. Kevin A. Maher and David J. Stevenson, “Impact Frustration of the Origin of Life,” Nature 331 (1988): 612–14; Verne R. Oberbeck and Guy Fogleman, “Impacts and the Origin of Life,” Nature 339 (1989): 434; Norman H. Sleep et al., “Annihilation of Ecosystems by Large Asteroid Impacts on the Early Earth,” Nature 342 (1989): 139–42; Stephen J. Mojzsis, “Lithosphere-Hydrosphere Interactions on the Hadean (>4.0 Ga) Earth,” Astrobiology 1 (2001): 382–83; Christopher Wills and Jeffrey Bada, The Spark of Life: Darwin and the Primeval Soup (Cambridge, MA: Perseus, 2000), 71–74; Richard A. Kerr, “Beating Up on a Young Earth, and Possibly Life,” Science 290 (2000): 1677; B. A. Cohen, T. D. Swindle, and D. A. Kring, “Support for the Lunar Cataclysm Hypothesis for Lunar Meteorite Impact Melt Ages,” Science 290 (2000): 1754–56. 3. Icko Iben Jr., “Stellar Evolution. I. The Approach to the Main Sequence,” Astrophysical Journal 141 (1965): 993–1018, especially page 1000; G. Wuchterl and Ralf S. Klessen, “The First Million Years of the Sun: A Calculation of the Formation and Early Evolution of a Solar Mass Star,” Astrophysical Journal Letters 560 (2001): L185–L188; Frederick M. Walter and Don C. Barry, “Pre- and Main-Sequence Evolution of Solar Activity,” in The Sun in Time, ed. C. P. Sonett, M. S. Giampapa, and M. S. Matthews (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1991), 633–57, note Table IV on page 653; David R. Soderblom, Burton F. Jones, and Debra Fischer, “Rotational Studies of Late-Type Stars. VII. M34 (NGC 1039) and the Evolution of Angular Momentum and Activity in Young Solar-Type Stars,” Astrophysical Journal 563 (2001): 334–40. 4. Hugh Ross, “The Faint Sun Paradox,” Facts for Faith, no. 10 (Q3 2002), 26–33; Fazale Rana and Hugh Ross, Origins of Life: Biblical and Evolutionary Models Face Off (Colorado Springs: NavPress, 2004), 218–21; Matthias Labrenz et al., “Formation of Sphalerite (ZnS) Deposits in Natural Biofilms of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria,” Science 290 (2000): 1744–47; Crisogono Vasconcelos and Judith A. McKenzie, “Sulfate Reducers—Dominant Players in a Low-Oxygen World?,” Science 290 (2000): 1711–12.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 1664-1671). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Over a few billion years, specific sulfate-reducing bacteria stripped Earth’s waters of low (but still deadly) concentrations of particular poisonous elements. Some of these bacteria consumed water-soluble zinc and turned it into zinc precipitates of pure sphalerite. Sphalerite is insoluble and, therefore, safe for advanced life. Moreover, once the bacteria formed sufficiently large and enduring populations, they produced sphalerite9 ore deposits, which future humans could easily exploit to make pure zinc metal. [Labrenz et al., “Formation of Sphalerite,” 1744–47.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 1687-1691). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Researchers now recognize that sulfate-reducing bacteria produced most, if not all, of the concentrated (thus economic to mine) ore deposits of iron, magnesium, zinc, and lead. Ores of trace metals such as silver, arsenic, selenium, and other life-essential (but potentially deadly) poisons may similarly owe their concentrations—and accessibility—to sulfate-reducing bacteria. In addition, these bacteria play a critical role in Earth’s sulfur and carbon cycles, both of which are necessary for maintaining life.10 [Vasconcelos and McKenzie, “Sulfate Reducers,” 1711–12.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 1691-1695). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Other simple life-forms helped prepare the way for advanced life on Earth’s landmasses. Detailed analyses of cryptogamic crusts (soils composed of clay, sand, fungi, mosses, and photosynthetic or oxygen-producing bacteria, existing symbiotically) demonstrate that these microbial soils dramatically transformed both the temperature and the chemistry of Earth’s early landmasses. This transformation prepared the way for more advanced vegetation.11 These findings solve a long-held mystery—why the lack of evidence for advanced land vegetation prior to about a half billion years ago? [David Schwartzman and Tyler Volk, “Biotic Enhancement of Weathering and the Habitability of Earth,” Nature 340 (1989): 457–60; Richard Monastersky, “Supersoil,” Science News 136 (1989): 376–77.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 1695-1700). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

Chapter 7: How the Fountain of Youth Ran Dry

· Good nutrition, excellent health care, biomedical advance—even with tremendous effort and expense, science can’t yet extend human lives much beyond 80 or 90 years. Over the last century, life expectancy might have doubled, but living to 100 still rates a newspaper write-up. Trying to imagine early humans living for over 900 years seems impossible. But that’s what the Bible says happened. So how could the long life spans described in Genesis 5 and 11 be possible? [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 1918-1921). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Some people suggest that the biblical years of life were measured by other markers, such as the Moon. (Twelve lunar years equal about one solar year.) However, such explanations cause other concerns.1 Biblically, Adam was 930 years old when he died. Translating lunar “years” into solar would make Adam just over 77 at the time of his death. But this calculation would also make Adam only 10½ years old when Seth was born. Likewise, Mahalalel (the father of Jared) would have been 5½ years old when his son was born. So what did happen? [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 1924-1928). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· According to the Reasons to Believe (RTB) model, the literal meaning of “years” for the Genesis account of early human life spans is accurate. This interpretation leads to an inescapable prediction—the first humans’ life spans were several hundred years and became progressively shorter early in human history. Interestingly, the Bible is not alone in claiming that the first humans (before the flood) lived much longer than people do today. In Mesopotamia, the Weld-Blundell prism (dating to the third millennium BC) and the Nippur tablets list eight pre-flood kings who lived thousands of years each.2 [“The Origins of Writing,” in Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, Metrpolitan Museum of Art, accessed May 7, 2015, http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/wrtg/hd_wrtg.htm.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 1929-1933). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Biochemists still lack complete understanding of aging and death. Significant progress, though, has been made in the past decade. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 1940-1941). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· The long life spans recorded in Genesis 5 and 11 seem plausible in light of the advances in the biochemistry of aging. Subtle differences in biochemistry—whether an increase in the activity and expression of enzymes like superoxide dismutase and Sir2 or the disruption of a few genes, such as the Indy or methuselah genes—translate into dramatic increases in longevity. In many cases, the biochemical changes that increase life expectancy appear independent of one another. Their effects might be additive. The research suggests how Adam could have lived to be 930 years old. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 2090-2094). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

Chapter 8 People on the Move

· The pattern and the timing of early human migrations fully harmonize with the RTB creation model and its prediction that humanity spread around the world from (or from near) the Middle East. The migratory pathways of the first humans, though still somewhat vague, fit well within the biblical account of human origins and dispersion. Migrations occurred with astonishing rapidity. Between 40,000 and 30,000 years ago, humans moved simultaneously from near the Middle East into Europe, Asia, and even Australia. This quick spread of humankind has no compelling explanation within the evolutionary framework. On the other hand, the RTB creation model anticipates and explains the rapid movement of humanity around the world. Genesis 11:9 says that “the Lord scattered [human beings] over the face of the whole earth.” This passage states that humanity spread from the Middle East in a hurry, motivated by a divine impetus. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 2426-2433). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

Chapter 9: Is Human Evolution a Fact?

· Biology teachers and evolutionary biologists are frequently confronted with this objection to evolution. Paleontologist Niles Eldredge responds to the challenge by pointing out that, The common expression “evolutionary theory” actually refers to two rather different sets of ideas: (1) the notion that absolutely all organisms living on the face of the Earth right now are descended from a single common ancestor, and (2) ideas of how the evolutionary process works.… Creationists love to gloss over this rather clear-cut, simple distinction between the idea that (1) life has evolved, and the sets of ideas on (2) how the evolutionary process actually works.1 [Niles Eldredge, The Triumph of Evolution and the Failure of Creationism (New York: W. H. Freeman, 2000), 24. For a book review and response, see Fazale R. Rana’s review of The Triumph of Evolution and the Failure of Creationism, in Facts for Faith, no. 3 (Q3 2000), 60–61.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 2474-2479). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Eldredge and other evolutionary biologists maintain that the idea of evolution is both a fact and a theory. That it occurred is the fact. How it occurred is the theory. These biologists actively debate evolution’s mechanism, but they insist the debate doesn’t mean that the fact of evolution is uncertain. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 2480-2482). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Evolutionary biologists base their claim on two main lines of evidence: shared anatomical features and the fossil record. Common features permit organisms to be grouped into nested clusters or hierarchies. Evolutionists take this pattern to indicate that life descended with modification from a common ancestor—in other words, life evolved. The fossil record shows that different life-forms existed on Earth at different times in history and reveals a progression from simple to complex organisms.2 [Eldredge, Triumph of Evolution, 25–60.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 2482-2486). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· The data available to paleoanthropologists and ultimately to teachers remain insufficient to formally demonstrate human evolution to be a fact. These scientists have limited understanding of the number of hominid species that existed, their geographical distribution, and the range of their biological variation. Without greater understanding, it’s impossible to determine hominid evolutionary relationships and the pathway that might have led to modern humans. Paleoanthropologists struggle with a sparse record and with fossils that are damaged, deformed, and incomplete. The craniodental features of the fossils (the primary morphological traits available for study) are biologically inadequate to construct reliable evolutionary trees. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 2735-2740). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· In one study, astrophysicists John Barrow, Brandon Carter, and Frank Tipler comment on the surprisingly large number of highly improbable steps in the supposed natural evolution of an intelligent species on Earth.31 Moreover, the number of such steps merely represents a lower limit; evolutionary biology has not yet advanced sufficiently to determine their actual number. Restricting the count to just the known problem steps (which are statistically independent) in the evolution of Homo sapiens sapiens, the trio produced a probability figure for the emergence of humans from a suite of bacterial species in 10 billion years or less: 10-24,000,000. (In other words, a decimal point 24 million places to the left of the 1.)32 [31. Brandon Carter, “The Anthropic Principle and Its Implications for Biological Evolution,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Astronomical Society A 370 (1983): 347–60; John D. Barrow and Frank J. Tipler, The Anthropic Cosmological Principle (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986), 510–73. 32. Barrow and Tipler, Anthropic Cosmological Principle, 557–66.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 2753-2759). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· To put the calculated probabilities for humans arising from single-celled organisms into perspective, if every proton and neutron in the universe were a planet, and if each of these planets contained as many single-celled organisms as Earth does today (a trillion quadrillion single-celled organisms), the probability that humans could have arisen once in the universe would be 10-999,921, according to Ayala’s calculation. According to Barrow, Carter, and Tipler’s calculation the number would be 10-23,999,921.33 [Quoted by Frank J. Tipler in “Intelligent Life in Cosmology,” International Journal of Astrobiology 2 (2003): 142.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 2764-2768). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

Chapter 10: Bipedalism and Brain Size

· However, anthropologists don’t hesitate to classify human beings as mammals belonging to the order Primates. The features that distinguish people from other primates include (1) bipedalism—the ability to walk erect; (2) a large brain; (3) a large ratio of brain size to body mass; (4) unique skull features—a short face, characteristic jaw robustness, distinguishing anterior and cheek teeth anatomy, and tooth eruption patterns; (5) characteristic body proportions, including relatively long legs and short arms; (6) limited sexual dimorphism—little size difference between females and males; (7) extensive manual dexterity; and (8) an advanced culture.1 [Roger Lewin, Principles of Human Evolution: A Core Textbook (Malden, MA: Blackwell Science, 1998).] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 2781-2786). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Evolutionists postulate that an apelike ancestor gave rise to the great ape and human lineages; therefore, bipedal primates must have evolved from knuckle-walking quadrupeds. Chimpanzees and gorillas knuckle-walk. They use a special type of terrestrial quadrupedalism (ground-based locomotion employing all four limbs). Their hands don’t rest on their palms or fingers but on their knuckles. This design allows chimpanzees and gorillas to walk using all fours while sparing their long, curved fingers for climbing and moving through trees.2 [John G. Fleagle, “Primate Locomotion and Posture,” in The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Evolution, ed. Steve Jones, Robert Martin, and David Pilbeam (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992), 75–85.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 2791-2795). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Relocating the foramen magnum The foramen magnum (the opening in the base of the skull that receives the spinal column) must be relocated from the posterior to the center of the skull base. This position eliminates the need for powerful neck muscles, because the vertebral column effectively balances the head. Restructuring of the inner ear bones The inner ear bones, which play a role in balance, must be altered to support bipedalism. Introducing spinal curvature The lower and upper vertebral column must possess forward curvature to maintain bipedalism. This curvature, coupled with the backward arc in the middle of the spinal column, allows the backbone to function as a spring. Restructuring of the rib cage The apes’ inverted funnel-shaped rib cage accommodates the use of their arms for locomotion. The bipeds’ barrel-shaped rib cage allows for effective use of the arms for nonlocomotor function. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 2818-2826). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Reshaping the pelvis To accommodate changes to the hip joints and muscles needed for bipedalism, the pelvis of a biped must be lower and broader than in knuckle-walking apes. Altering the lower limbs Bipedal primates not only have longer lower limbs than quadrupeds, but the valgus angle (the angle between the femur and the midline of the body) also must be altered. Longer lower limbs shift the center of mass toward the lower body. Angling the femurs inward moves the center of mass closer to the midline of the body. The altered center of mass allows for stability in bipedal locomotion. Enlarging joint surfaces Not only must the knee be restructured to accommodate the changed valgus angle, but joint surfaces must also be enlarged. This larger contact area helps the knee and other joints withstand the stresses of standing and walking upright. Restructuring the foot Even the feet require an altered structure to support bipedalism. The transformation includes a platform foot with arches for better shock absorption. The big toe (hallux) must also be relocated, elongated, and aligned with the other toes. This structure allows the toe to make the last point of contact with the ground as the leg swings forward during a bipedal stride. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 2826-2836). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Reorganizing the body’s musculature Given the global skeletal changes that must take place to transition from quadruped to biped, much of the musculature of the biped must also be altered, not only to accommodate the skeletal differences, but also to support bipedal locomotion. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 2837-2839). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

Chapter 11: Who Was Turkana Boy?

· Turkana boy lived about nine years and then died—about 1.6 million years ago. Discovered in 1984 at Nariokotome, on the west side of Lake Turkana in East Africa, the remains of Turkana boy are considered a rare find. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 3026-3027). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· The textbook view places the first appearance of H. erectus in Africa about 2 million years ago. According to this interpretation, after about a million years, the first erectines migrated from Africa into Asia. Then, about 100,000 years ago, these hominids disappeared from the fossil record. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 3038-3040). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· The archeological evidence indicates that H. erectus/ergaster was an exceptional creature, advanced compared to the animals and hominids that came before. Still, this primate’s behavior was not human. Though H. erectus/ergaster used tools, the implements were crude and unsophisticated compared to those employed by human beings. Evidence that H. erectus/ergaster used fire remains controversial. Moreover, fire use may not be a marker for human behavior (and God’s image). H. erectus/ergaster fire use might have consisted of the opportunistic exploitation of naturally occurring fires. While no existing animals exploit fire in this way, the hominids found in the fossil record are unique. No animals alive today (including the great apes) are like H. erectus/ergaster. Nevertheless, no links between them and human beings have been established. And the disconnect grows wider with time as the evidence accumulates. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 3222-3229). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

Chapter 12: Who Were the Neanderthals?

· French paleoanthropologist Marcellin Boule probably would have taken a seat as far away as possible. Based on his examination of a nearly complete skeleton specimen, Boule concluded that Neanderthal was a slouching brute that made no immediate contribution to human origins.1 [Roger Lewin, Principles of Human Evolution: A Core Textbook (Malden, MA: Blackwell Science, 1998), 373–82.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 3240-3243). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· According to William Straus (Johns Hopkins University) and A. J. E. Cave (St. Bartholomew’s Hospital Medical Center), no one would notice a Neanderthal in the subway, “provided that he were bathed, shaved, and dressed in modern clothing.”2 These two anthropologists offered their commentary at a symposium held in 1956 commemorating the 100th anniversary of the Neanderthals’ discovery. [William L. Straus Jr. and A. J. E. Cave, “Pathology and the Posture of Neanderthal Man,” Quarterly Review of Biology 32 (1957): 348–63.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 3245-3248). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Neanderthals are classified as archaic Homo sapiens that lived (based on the fossil record) roughly between 150,000 and 30,000 years ago. They occupied Europe, the Middle East, and parts of Asia.3 [Lewin, Principles of Human Evolution, 365.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 3255-3257). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· In contrast to other hominids, the Neanderthal fossil and archeological records are rich. Fossil hunters have recovered nearly 30 complete skeletons and numerous partial remains.4 The abundance of fossils and artifacts gives researchers powerful clues about Neanderthal biology and culture and, ultimately, comparative status with human beings. The data are sufficient to rigorously assess whether an evolutionary connection exists between Neanderthals and modern humans. [Lewin, Principles of Human Evolution, 365.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 3257-3261). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Though anatomically similar in many ways, Neanderthals and humans exhibit significant morphological differences. In some instances, Neanderthals display a unique combination of features, unknown in any other hominid.5 Compared to human beings, Neanderthals displayed:6 • an extraordinarily long face • a pronounced midface projection • a poorly developed chin • a highly developed brow ridge • large, round eye sockets • an extremely long nose • cavernous sinuses • larger front teeth • a retromolar gap • an occipital bun • a brain flatter and smaller in the front and more bulged in the back and sides • a flatter skull • an elongated foramen magnum (opening in the skull for the spinal cord) • a higher larynx • thicker bones • a more compact body with a barrel chest and shorter limbs. [For accessible descriptions of Neanderthal anatomy, see Christopher Stringer and Robin McKie, African Exodus: The Origins of Modern Humanity (New York: Henry Holt, 1996), 85–114; Richard G. Klein with Blake Edgar, The Dawn of Human Culture: A Bold New Theory on What Sparked the “Big Bang” of Human Consciousness (New York: Wiley, 2002), 172–80.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 3264-3279). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· The Neanderthals’ brain size slightly exceeded that of humans, but their brain-size to body-mass ratio was smaller. In other words, encephalization was less extensive in Neanderthals than in human beings. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 3279-3281). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Many paleoanthropologists acknowledge that climate effects may account for some anatomical differences between humans and Neanderthals. However, some of these same scientists maintain that the Neanderthals’ unique features represent a profound distinction: Not only must Neanderthal be considered a separate species, but it must also be viewed as an evolutionary side branch, a dead end. In other words, the scientists claim that Neanderthals have no evolutionary connection to humanity. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 3299-3302). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· An anatomical study published in 2004 further confirms the conclusions of Rak and others. Using a recently developed statistical technique that incorporates and preserves the relative three-dimensional spatial orientation of anatomical features (during the data treatment), a team of paleoanthropologists compared the skull anatomies of Neanderthals and modern humans.10 They found that Neanderthal and modern human data points formed distinct clusters. These investigators showed that the separation between the clusters was too great to allow classification as subspecies. Rather, they concluded, the anatomical distinctions between Neanderthal and human skulls indicate separate species. In fact, Neanderthals showed no closer anatomical affinity to modern Europeans than to any other human population group. This work “strongly implies that they [Neanderthals] were not ancestral to any extant human populations.”11 [Katerina Harvati, Stephen R. Frost, and Kieran P. McNulty, “Neanderthal Taxonomy Reconsidered: Implications of 3D Primate Models of Intra- and Interspecific Differences,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 101 (2004): 1147–52.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 3307-3314). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Anthropologist Richard Klein quipped, “In the buff, Neanderthals would garner stares in any modern health club. It has sometimes been said that if they were properly dressed, they would go unnoticed on the New York subway, but even this is doubtful…unless like many New Yorkers, they made a point of minding their own business.”12 [Klein with Edgar, Dawn of Human Culture, 176.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 3315-3318). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· The RTB model readily accommodates scientific insights into Neanderthal biology. It identifies these hominids as created by God—with some similarities to human beings and yet distinct (see “God created Adam and Eve…” in chapter 3). Hominids existed for a time, then went extinct. The biological separation, now recognized by the scientific community, is what the RTB model anticipates. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 3488-3490). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Archeological evidence from Neanderthal sites has yielded important insight into their behavior and culture. Claims that Neanderthals used sophisticated tools, possessed language, and engaged in artistic and musical expression abound. They might have buried their dead. And there’s a widespread perception that Neanderthals engaged in religious activity. If these claims are accurate, the RTB model needs major adjustment. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 3494-3497). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· The Neanderthals’ tool kit belongs to the Mousterian culture (also known as the Middle Stone Age and Middle Paleolithic). This technology appeared about 250,000 years ago and disappeared around 30,000 years ago when the Neanderthals vanished. Relatively few Middle Stone Age sites are known outside Europe. Mousterian technology primarily relied on stones and wood. The archeological data seem to indicate little if any use of bone, antlers, or ivory. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 3498-3501). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Some paleoanthropologists think that stone flakes might have been used as spearheads, indicating that Neanderthals were effective hunters.41 Hand axes (used by H. erectus/ergaster) were absent from the Mousterian tool kit.42 Still, compared to the tools used by the earliest human beings, Neanderthal implements were relatively unsophisticated. According to paleoanthropologist Richard Klein, “The archeological record suggests that they [Neanderthals] were behaviorally far less innovative [than modern humans].”43 [41. Hartmut Thieme, “Lower Palaeolithic Hunting Spears from Germany,” Nature 385 (1997): 807–10; Robin Dennell, “The World’s Oldest Spears,” Nature 385 (1997): 767–68; John J. Shea, “Neandertal and Early Modern Human Behavioral Variability: A Regional-Scale Approach to Lithic Evidence for Hunting in the Levantine Mousterian,” Current Anthropology 39, Supplemental (1998): S45–S78. 42. Lewin, Principles of Human Evolution, 368–72. 43. Klein with Edgar, Dawn of Human Culture, 180.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 3503-3508). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Differences in dietary habits also suggest behavioral and cognitive dissimilarities between Neanderthals and the earliest humans. By analyzing different forms of carbon and nitrogen (isotopes) from bone collagen (fibrous proteins in bones), paleoanthropologists from the United States and the United Kingdom identified the protein sources in the diets of these two species. They found that the protein in the Neanderthal diet came almost exclusively from the consumption of terrestrial herbivores. In contrast, early people who lived 40,000 to 30,000 years ago ate a varied diet including fish, fowl, mollusks, and herbivores from freshwater, wetlands, seacoasts, and dry terrestrial regions.45 These people displayed a far greater proficiency at obtaining food from their environment than Neanderthals ever did. Thus these dietary differences may reflect an important disparity in cognitive capability. Early human ability to acquire protein from a wide range of sources suggests a superior intelligence. Neanderthals apparently lacked the means to adjust their diet as circumstances demanded. [Michael P. Richards et al., “Stable Isotope Evidence for Increasing Dietary Breadth in the European Mid-Upper Paleolithic,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 98 (2001): 6528–32.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 3513-3521). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Two follow-up studies demonstrated that no correlation exists between canal size and vocal ability.49 As Roger Lewin notes in his textbook on human evolution, “The notion that Neanderthals had poorly developed language abilities has become the majority position among anthropologists.”50 Most anthropologists think language is necessary to develop and sustain advanced culture and technology. Without it, Neanderthals simply could not behave like human beings. [49. David DeGusta, W. Henry Gilbert, and Scott P. Turner, “Hypoglossal Canal Size and Hominid Speech,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 96 (1999): 1800–1804; Philip Lieberman, “Silver-Tongued Neandertals?,” Science 283 (1999): 175; William L. Jungers et al., “Hypoglossal Canal Size in Living Hominoids and the Evolution of Human Speech,” Human Biology 75 (2003): 473–84. 50. Lewin, Principles of Human Evolution, 460.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 3535-3540). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Neanderthals lacked not only speech but also symbolic thought. Artistic and musical expression reflects this capacity. Klein states, “Unlike Upper Paleolithic Cro-Magnons [modern humans], Middle Paleolithic Neanderthals left little compelling evidence for art or jewelry.”51 Despite a lack of evidence, some highly publicized claims have been made for Neanderthal artistic expression. One of the most widely known is the so-called Neanderthal flute recovered from a cave in Slovenia in 1995.52 The paleoanthropologists who made this find interpreted an 11-centimeter bone fragment from a cave bear’s femur (leg bone) as a flute. This bone shaft had four evenly spaced circular openings on one side. Subsequent analysis, less publicized, revealed that these openings were more likely perforations to the bone caused by carnivores.53 [51. Richard G. Klein, “Whither the Neanderthals?,” Science 299 (2003): 1525–27. 52. Klein with Edgar, Dawn of Human Culture, 192–96. 53. Ibid.; Encyclopedia of Human Evolution and Prehistory, 2nd ed., s.v. “musical instruments.”] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 3540-3548). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Highly touted claims of Neanderthals’ ritual behavior and even religious expression have also appeared in the media. Their chief basis? Graves. Neanderthal remains have been uncovered in close association with tools and other artifacts or in an exaggerated fetal position that seems to have been deliberately arranged at the time of burial.54 [Lewin, Principles of Human Evolution, 368–72.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 3549-3552). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· When all archeological evidence is critically considered, it appears as though Neanderthals possessed some capacity for emotional expression and a level of intelligence, similar to that of the great apes today. Yet they clearly lived in nonhuman ways. To say that Neanderthals behaved like spiritual beings made in God’s image stretches the evidence beyond reasonable limits. The archeological evidence more closely coincides with the RTB model’s perspective on these creatures—they behaved more like animals than like humans. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 3581-3585). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Their primary evidence comes from a cave in France (Arcy-sur-Cure) that contains layers from both the Middle and Upper Paleolithic time frames. At layers that date 34,000 years in age (which corresponds to the end of the Neanderthals’ existence), a Neanderthal specimen was recovered in what appears to be the same layer containing artifacts identical to those made by human beings.61 The interpretation of this find represents an obvious challenge to RTB’s model. [Jean-Jacques Hublin et al., “A Late Neanderthal Associated with Upper Palaeolithic Artifacts,” Nature 381 (1996): 224–26; Jeffrey Brainard, “Giving Neandertals Their Due: Similarities with Modern Humans Shift the Image of the Caveman Brute,” Science News 154 (1998): 72–74.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 3587-3591). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· However, not all paleoanthropologists are so quick to conclude that Neanderthals eventually achieved technology and behavior comparable to those of modern humans. Some point out the various problems with this supposition. First they caution that, because several layers from different time periods lie close together, mixing might have jumbled contents, particularly for juxtaposed layers. Also, it’s possible for two separate layers to be misinterpreted as one, even with the most careful excavation. Another explanation relies on the idea that Neanderthals and humans coexisted. It’s conceivable that Neanderthals might have mimicked—or borrowed—the technology of people. A more likely scenario is that Neanderthals came upon a cave site previously occupied and abandoned by human beings. Or perhaps the hominids took these artifacts from nearby human sites.62 (Monkeys like to “steal” and play with human tools, pottery, and jewelry.) [Brainard, “Giving Neandertals Their Due,” 72–74; Klein, “Whither the Neanderthals?,” 1525–27.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 3591-3598). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Two recent studies conducted by Italian and Spanish scientists employed multivariate statistical analysis to compare the brain shapes and structures of archaic H. sapiens (such as H. heidelbergensis), Neanderthals, and modern humans.63 The team used both computer-generated models and physical brain endocasts in their analysis. They discovered that the brain shape and structure for Neanderthals and the “archaic” H. sapiens were essentially identical. The only difference? The Neanderthals’ brains were larger. Human brain shape and structure, however, are distinctly different. Compared to Neanderthals’ brains, the human brain has a larger parietal lobe. This brain region plays a vital role in language, math reasoning, sense of self-identity, and religious experience.64 Such a profound biological distinction explains the behavioral difference between Neanderthals and people. The Neanderthals’ brain shape and structure provided no capacity for behaving the way human beings behave. Neanderthals lacked the necessary brain structure to think and act in a way that reflects God’s image. [63. Emiliano Bruner, Giorgio Manzi, and Juan Luis Arsuaga, “Encephalization and Allometric Trajectories in the Genus Homo: Evidence from the Neandertal and Modern Lineages,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 100 (2003): 15335–40; Emiliano Bruner, “Geometric Morphometrics and Paleoneurology: Brain Shape Evolution in the Genus Homo,” Journal of Human Evolution 47 (2004): 279–303. 64. Andrew Newberg, Eugene G. D’Aquili, and Vince Rause, Why God Won’t Go Away: Brain Science and the Biology of Belief (New York: Ballantine Books, 2002).] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 3602-3611). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

Chapter 13: What about Chimpanzees?

· Charles Darwin was the first to argue that the features shared by humans and apes reflect their mutual evolutionary ancestry.4 And yet long before Darwin, biologists recognized and acknowledged the similarity between humans and chimpanzees (as well as the other great apes). Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778), the father of the biological classification system still used today, grouped humans and apes together as primates.5 [4. Charles Darwin, The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, 2nd ed., Great Minds Series (1874; repr., Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1998), 5–26, 632. 5. Jonathan Marks, What It Means to Be 98% Chimpanzee: Apes, People, and Their Genes (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002), 58–61.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 3649-3653). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· The most notable difference between human chromosomes and chimp chromosomes is the quantity: 46 for humans and 48 for chimpanzees. Evolutionary biologists account for this difference by suggesting that two chimp chromosomes fused. They think this fusion generated what is now human chromosome 2. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 3723-3725). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· One of the first studies to make a genome-to-genome comparison between humans and chimpanzees was reported early in 2002 by the International Consortium for the Sequencing of Chimpanzee Chromosome 22.33 To make this whole-genome comparison, the Chimpanzee Genome Project team cut the chimp genome into fragments, sequenced them, then compared them to corresponding sequences found in the Human Genome Database. For those chimp DNA fragments that were able to align with sequences in the Human Genome Database, the project team found that the sequences displayed a 98.77 percent agreement. However, the project team found that about 15,000 of the 65,000 DNA fragments did not align with any sequence in the Human Genome Database. They appear to represent unique genetic regions. [Asao Fujiyama et al., “Construction and Analysis of a Human-Chimpanzee Comparative Clone Map,” Science 295 (2002): 131–34.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 3844-3849). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· A few months later, a team from the Max Planck Institute achieved a similar result when they compared over 10,000 regions (encompassing nearly 3 million nucleotide base pairs). Only two-thirds of the sequences from the chimp genome aligned with the sequences in the human genome. As expected, in those that did align, a 98.76 percent genetic similarity was measured, and yet one-third found no matches.34 [Ingo Ebersberger et al., “Genomewide Comparison of DNA Sequences between Humans and Chimpanzees,” American Journal of Human Genetics 70 (2002): 1490–97.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 3850-3853). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· The Chimpanzee Genome Project team discovered another difference between genomes during a detailed comparison of the chimpanzee genome DNA fragments with human chromosome 21. The team found that this human chromosome possesses two regions apparently unique to the human genome.35 [Fujiyama et al., “Constructions and Analysis,” 131–34.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 3853-3855). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Until recently, evolutionary biologists have looked for only a single type of difference between human and chimpanzee DNA sequences, namely substitutions of one nucleotide for another. When researchers expand the comparison to include differences that involve insertions and deletions (called indels), marked dissimilarities between human and chimpanzee genomes become evident. For example, a study that compared five regions of the chimpanzee genome collectively (encompassing about 780,000 nucleotide base pairs) with corresponding regions of the human genome found a 1.4 percent difference when substitutions were considered. But a 3.4 percent difference appeared when these five regions were examined for indels. Both types of differences combined show a 95 percent genetic similarity, not 99 percent.36 [Roy J. Britten, “Divergence between Samples of Chimpanzee and Human DNA Sequences Is 5%, Counting Indels,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 99 (2002): 13633–35.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 3856-3861). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Another study that used this type of approach found a much more limited genetic similarity when a 1,870,955-base-pair segment of the chimpanzee genome was compared with the corresponding human genome region. When only substitutions were considered, the sequence similarity proved about 98.6 percent. Including indels in the comparison dropped the similarity to 86.7 percent.37 [Tatsuya Anzai et al., “Comparative Sequencing of Human and Chimpanzee MHC Class 1 Regions Unveils Insertions/Deletions as the Major Path to Genomic Divergence,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 100 (2003): 7708–13.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 3862-3865). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Although human and chimpanzee genomes display great similarity, that similarity has been magnified to some extent by research methodology. Researchers are starting to uncover significant differences. Results of large-scale comparisons must be considered preliminary, as it’s not yet clear what the genetic differences mean in terms of anatomical and behavioral characteristics. However, greater clarity will likely come as research progresses. Already the newly recognized genetic differences between humans and chimpanzees complicate the picture for biologists who view the high degree of genetic similarity between humans and chimpanzees as proof of shared ancestry. If 99 percent genetic similarity represents a close evolutionary connection, what does the more recently measured 86.7 percent genetic similarity mean? [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 3880-3886). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· One noteworthy biochemical difference between humans and the great apes is the absence in people of a particular cell-surface sugar, N-glycolyl-neuraminic acid (GL-neur).43 This sugar is found in virtually all mammals, including chimpanzees. Sugars in the cell surface play a critical role in a number of physiological processes. For example, they serve as the binding site for many pathogens. The absence of GL-neur explains the immunological distinction between humans and other mammals, including chimpanzees. [Elaine A. Muchmore, Sandra Diaz, and Ajit Varki, “A Structural Difference between the Cell Surfaces of Humans and Great Apes,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology 107 (1998): 187–98.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 3891-3895). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Though humans and chimpanzees share a high degree of genetic similarity, several recent studies demonstrate that even subtle genetic differences can manifest themselves dramatically in terms of an organism’s anatomy, physiology, and behavior. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 3986-3987). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Anthropologist Jonathan Marks addresses the genetics question in his book What It Means to Be 98% Chimpanzee.57 Marks maintains that comparisons based on the percentage of similarity (or difference) of DNA sequences are largely meaningless. He points out the fact that humans and daffodils possess a 35 percent genetic similarity. According to Marks, In the context of a 35% similarity to a daffodil, the 99.44% of the DNA of human to chimp doesn’t seem so remarkable. After all, humans are obviously a heck of a lot more similar to chimpanzees than to daffodils. More than that, to say that humans are over one-third daffodil is more ludicrous than profound. There are hardly any comparisons you can make to a daffodil in which humans are 33% similar.58 [57. Marks, “What It Means,” 7–50. 58. Ibid., 29.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 3989-3996). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· The large number of shared genes found among the genomes of humans, chimpanzees, mice, rats, and other animals reflects elegant design efficiency. The Creator appears to have selected a gene set that could be used to construct a wide range of organisms. This design principle is commonplace. A child with a set of building blocks may be observed to take advantage of this approach. Depending on the child’s wishes, he or she can make numerous structures from the same set of blocks. Computer engineers produce computers with fixed hardware that can be programmed with software for an enormous array of functions. Even human languages rely on this principle. A relatively small set of words can be used to communicate an immeasurable number of ideas and concepts. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 4095-4100). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

Chapter 14: What about “Junk” DNA?

· Biochemists now recognize that LINE DNA plays a strategic role in an organism’s development, turning genes off in X-chromosome inactivation and in monoallelic gene expression. Because it regulates gene expression, LINE DNA may represent an intentionally designed feature of humans’ and animals’ genomes. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 4317-4319). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· It now appears that endogenous retroviruses play a wide range of roles in the cell. One of their chief functions is protection against retrovirus infections. These DNA elements appear to be an elegantly functioning component of the human genome. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 4343-4345). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· The plethora of discoveries that identify functions for virtually all classes of noncoding DNA undermine evolution’s case. Instead of compelling an evolutionary interpretation, the shared features of human and chimpanzee noncoding DNA can easily be explained as useful features fashioned by the Creator for the benefit of a wide range of organisms, including humans and chimpanzees. Many scientists now maintain that even though they can’t directly identify functional roles for some classes of noncoding DNA, these DNA segments must be functional because they are shared among a wide range of distantly related and even unrelated organisms.50 Apparently these noncoding DNA classes operate in a critical capacity. If they didn’t, mutations would readily accrue in them. The mutations would have rendered the DNA nonfunctional. Any change would be deleterious to the organism. Ironically, this reasoning supports the concept that shared genetic features reflect the Creator’s work, not common ancestry. The scientific community now recognizes that noncoding DNA is functional. This realization greatly weakens one of the mainstays for human evolution and for the shared ancestry of humans and chimpanzees. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 4346-4355). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Because the various classes of noncoding DNA all perform functional roles, it’s unnecessary to evoke a common evolutionary history to explain their shared presence in the human and chimpanzee genomes. The RTB model maintains instead that the existence of similar noncoding DNA sequences in these genomes reflects the Creator’s use of common design features when He miraculously made humans and chimps. The common geography of noncoding DNA sequences in the human and chimp genomes likely stems from their role in regulating gene activity. These DNA sequences must be precisely positioned (relative to the genes they control) to exert their proper influence. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 4355-4360). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

Chapter 15: Humanity’s Identity Materializes

· Creation does not have to be blindly accepted based on faith alone. The biblical explanation can be tested (see chapter 3). Statements about God’s creative work and passages that speak about Earth’s and life’s natural history can be framed in the form of a scientific description or model. The logical consequences and outworkings of the biblical text expressed in this manner provide a way to establish creation’s validity. The RTB model can be tested by the scientific community to access—and further assess—truth about the natural realm. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 4415-4418). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

PART III: THE TEN-YEAR UPDATE

Chapter 16: Why This Update?

· The purpose of Part III is to bring Who Was Adam? up-to-date by discussing how scientific advances impact Reasons to Believe’s (RTB) model. We opted to let the original work stand (aside from minor editorial corrections) as written in 2005 and to focus on the most salient new discoveries of the past decade. Rather than simply describe the new finds, we will use them as a way to subject our model to wider, more overt tests. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 4487-4490). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Ultimately, the rationale for updating Who Was Adam? and not rewriting the book is to emphasize the fact that the RTB human origins model is, indeed, a scientific model. RTB’s model exists within a highly dynamic environment, continually challenged by new discoveries from the fossil and archeological records and advances in molecular anthropology and comparative genomics. These advances have forced (and will force) revisions and refinements and have generated the need for extensions of the model. But the same is true for any model in any scientific discipline. It is what makes science so exciting. Creation can indeed be science. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 4541-4545). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

Chapter 17: Better Dates for Humanity’s Genesis

· Given such evidence, and to summarize some features of our earlier position, RTB maintained that • remarkable agreement between the molecular anthropology data and our model predictions supported the biblical creation account of humanity;  • the ancestral mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal sequences corresponded to a primordial couple, the biblical Adam and Eve; • the date for mitochondrial Eve was at 171,000 ± 50,000 years ago;  • the date for Y-chromosomal Adam was between 50,000 to 60,000 years ago; and • the discrepancy between the dates for mitochondrial Eve and Y-chromosomal Adam may find explanation in the flood event described in Genesis 6–9. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 4557-4564). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Based on the best and most recent analysis of Y chromosome variants, it appears that the date for Y-chromosomal Adam is between 100,000 and 200,000 years ago, not—as we had thought—50,000 to 60,000 years ago. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 4629-4630). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Now that researchers have used better estimates of mutation rates for mtDNA, looked at larger regions of the Y chromosome, and included rare Y chromosome variants, the dates for mitochondrial Eve and Y-chromosomal Adam converge around 150,000 years ago. Added support for this conclusion comes from a study in which researchers determined that the last ancestor of all human males lived between 120,000 and 156,000 years ago and the ancestor of all human females lived between 99,000 and 148,000 years ago.10 [Poznik et al., “Sequencing Y Chromosomes,” 562–65.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 4631-4635). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· At this juncture we can say that “wider and more overt” tests over the past decade have mostly affirmed our model. However, we would be dishonest if we failed to mention that in retrospect our initial estimate for humanity’s origin between 10,000 and 100,000 years ago was misguided, and should be retracted. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 4688-4690). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

Chapter 18: When Did Modern Human Behavior Begin?

· Anthropologist Christopher Stringer of the Natural History Museum in London commented on the Southeast Asia art re-dating: It is a really important find; it enables us to get away from this Euro-centric view of a creative explosion that was special to Europe and did not develop in other parts of the world until much later…The basis for this art was there 60,000 years ago; it may even have been there in Africa before 60,000 years ago and it spread with modern humans.5 [Pallab Ghosh, “Cave Paintings Change Ideas about the Origin of Art,” BBC News, October 8, 2014, http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-29415716.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 4746-4750). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Ten years ago, we sided with those who viewed these remains as nonhuman, noting the associated archeological record revealed that these putative hominids engaged in behavior unsophisticated compared to that expected for modern humans. Yet, if the evidence for symbolism at these sites stands, then it would be best to regard the Qafzeh, Skhūl, Omo Kibish, and Klasies River Mouth people as anatomically and behaviorally modern humans. Once again, a slight correction to our model is in order as a consensus emerges among the fossil, archeological, and genetic lines of evidence. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 4778-4782). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· A decade of “wider and more overt” testing has helped determine the definitive emergence of modern human behavior. It also narrows the gap between the origin of humanity (100,000 to 150,000 years ago) and evidence for the image of God (now at 70,000 years ago if not earlier). [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 4797-4798). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

Chapter 19: New Hominid Fossils Provide Model Tests

Chapter 20 Are Neanderthals Similar to Humans?

· The 33,000-year-old remains of a Neanderthal infant reveal that these hominids were larger and more robust during infancy than humans.6 Virtual endocasts (brain casts) of human brains show that our brains change shape, from more elongated to more globular, as we mature from infancy. However, statistical comparisons with virtual endocasts of Neanderthals indicate their brains did not undergo globularization.7 These studies affirm the notion that humans and Neanderthals are distinct species. Such differences in brain development are confirmed by recent comparisons of the Neanderthal and human genomes, which have uncovered dissimilarities in the genes associated with brain development. The developmental contrasts also point to cognitive differences between human beings and Neanderthals. [6. Isabelle Crevecoeur et al., “The Spy VI Child: A Newly Discovered Neandertal Infant,” Journal of Human Evolution 59 (2010): 641–56. 7. Philipp Gunz et al., “Brain Development after Birth Differs between Neanderthals and Modern Humans,” Current Biology 20 (2010): R921–R922.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 5101-5108). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Size matters, but so does the layout. In 2013, Oxford University researchers published a report on differences between Neanderthal and human brain organization.8 Neanderthals possessed nearly the same brain size as humans (see chapter 12). (They also had a greater body mass and, consequently, a smaller encephalization quotient compared to modern humans.) However, Neanderthal brain structure—such as the shape of the parietal lobe—varied from that of humans and even slight dissimilarities in brain organization will affect cognitive function. [Eiluned Pearce, Chris Stringer, and R. I. M. Dunbar, “New Insights into Differences in Brain Organization between Neanderthals and Anatomically Modern Humans,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B 280 (2013): doi:10.1098/rspb.2013.0168.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 5108-5113). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· In 2008, an international team of collaborators applied this cutting-edge technology for the first time to sequence the entire Neanderthal mtDNA genome.9 Soon after, geneticists generated the entire sequence for five Neanderthals. The specimens spanned the geographical range and much of the time Neanderthals existed (38,000 to 70,000 years ago).10 This research confirms that Neanderthal mtDNA falls outside the range of human variation. In fact, the new, more comprehensive understanding of the entire mitochondrial genome indicates a greater genetic difference between humans and Neanderthals than do the smaller mtDNA fragments. The analysis also reveals Neanderthals had a genetic diversity close to one-third that of humans. It likely means Neanderthals had a relatively small population size, which could explain why these hominids went extinct. The lower genetic variability also has implications regarding the likelihood of human-Neanderthal interbreeding. [9. Richard E. Green et al., “A Complete Neandertal Mitochondrial Genome Sequence Determined by High-Throughput Sequencing,” Cell 134 (2008): 416–26. 10. Adrian W. Briggs et al., “Targeted Retrieval and Analysis of Five Neandertal mtDNA Genomes,” Science 325 (2009): 318–21.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 5131-5138). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· By the end of 2013, sequencing technology progressed to the point that researchers were able to produce a high-quality genome sequence (with 52-fold coverage!) of a female known as the “Altai Neanderthal.”13 The DNA was extracted from a finger bone recovered in the same cave––located in the Altai Mountains of Siberia—as the Denisovan remains (see “Meet the Denisovans” in chapter 20). The layer yielding the finger bone was dated at 50,000 years in age. The research team also reported a low-coverage sequence (0.5-fold coverage) of the nuclear genome for another Neanderthal specimen from the Caucasus (Eurasia). Overall, the sequence data again affirm that Neanderthals and humans are distinct species and that Neanderthals did not directly evolve into humans. Comparisons of the three Neanderthal genomes with those of humans also identified a number of differences related to genes that play a role in brain development, including those associated with neuronal stem cell maintenance and proliferation during cortex development. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 5168-5175). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· A whirlwind of discoveries in ancient DNA affirms the genetic distinctions between Neanderthals and modern humans predicted by RTB’s model. This past decade has also provided a genetic basis that accounts for the cognitive differences between modern humans and Neanderthals, which is also in agreement with the RTB model. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 5243-5245). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

Chapter 21: The Messy Interbreeding Problem

· All controversy seemed resolved when the rough draft sequence of the Neanderthal genome—a veritable DNA map of 4 billion base pairs—was completed in 2010.10 Examining the average genetic differences between Neanderthal and human genomes, the researchers noted that Neanderthals had more in common with non-African peoples than with African groups. Geneticists can account for this if there had been limited interbreeding between humans and Neanderthals in the eastern portion of the Middle East, roughly 45,000 to 80,000 years ago, as humans began to migrate around the world. Such limited encounters would explain why non-African populations display what appears to be a 1 to 4 percent genetic contribution from Neanderthals while African people groups have no contribution whatsoever. A follow-up study seemed to affirm this scenario by estimating that the interbreeding events between humans and Neanderthals took place between 47,000 and 65,000 years ago.11 [10. Richard E. Green, “A Draft Sequence of the Neandertal Genome,” Science 328 (2010): 710–22. 11. Sriram Sankararaman et al., “The Date of Interbreeding between Neandertals and Modern Humans,” PLoS Genetics 8, (2012): e1002947, doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1002947.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 5298-5305). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· But another explanation also makes sense. It could be that these HLA genes already existed in the human gene pool before humans began migrating. In that case, the shared genes could be understood as reflecting shared design features. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 5362-5363). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· And what if it did happen? If humans interbred with other hominids would it invalidate the Reasons to Believe (RTB) human origins model that predicts humans and Neanderthals (and the Denisovans) were biologically and behaviorally distinct? Not necessarily. Just because humans and Neanderthals interbred, does not mean they must be the same species. Mammals in the same family have been known to interbreed to produce viable hybrids. For example, lions and tigers can produce “ligers” and dolphins and whales can produce “wholphins.” [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 5444-5448). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· No scientist doubts that Neanderthals and humans are distinct species. According to paleoanthropologist Ian Tattersall, “The difference in skull structure between Homo neanderthalensis and Homo sapiens is far greater than…the one between lions and tigers.”36 The anatomical, genetic, and developmental differences between humans and Neanderthals (and, presumably, the Denisovans) justify viewing them as distinct biological entities. Along these lines, it is important to note that researchers believe the resulting human-Neanderthal hybrids lacked fecundity.37 Geneticist David Reich noted that humans and Neanderthals “‘were at the edge of biological compatibility.’”38 [36. Ian Tattersall, Masters of the Planet: The Search for Our Human Origins (New York: Palgrave Macmillian, 2012), 168. 37. Sankararaman et al., “Genomic Landscape,” 354–57; Vernot and Akey, “Resurrecting Surviving Neandertal Lineages,” 1017–21. 38. Ewen Callaway, “Modern Human Genomes Reveal Our Inner Neanderthal,” Nature News (2014): doi:10.1038/nature.2014.14615.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 5448-5454). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Some people maintain that interbreeding provides prima facie evidence humans and Neanderthals must have shared a common ancestor and that both lineages emerged from a self-contained interbreeding population. However, from a Christian perspective, it is still possible to view humans and Neanderthals as distinct products of God’s creative activity. On this view, an ability to interbreed reflects common design, not common descent. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 5454-5457). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· From a biblical standpoint, and given humanity’s depraved post-fall nature, it should not be surprising that humans interbred with Neanderthals. Genesis 6:5 states that prior to the flood “The LORD saw how great the wickedness of the human race had become on the earth, and that every inclination of the thoughts of the human heart was only evil all the time.” Leviticus 18:23 condemns and forbids bestiality. Given humanity’s propensity for intercourse with animals, it is not shocking that humans would choose to interbreed with creatures like Neanderthals, who closely resemble humans. Also, it is interesting to note that Genesis 6:1–42 describes the Nephilim as the hybrid offspring of interbreeding between the sons of God and the daughters of men. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 5459-5464). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Still, if humans and Neanderthals interbred, it raises several tricky theological issues such as whether the human-Neanderthal hybrids had a soul. Such worthwhile considerations lie beyond the scope of this primarily scientific book, but RTB scholars continue to wrestle through the philosophical and theological implications. However, taking into account strong evidence for human-hominid interbreeding, such data do not invalidate the RTB human origins model. They do raise points of concern, but RTB’s model can accommodate evidence for such degenerate behavior. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 5464-5468). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

Chapter 22: Did Neanderthals Have the Smarts?

· The new interpretation of the Roc de Marsal site might help throw dirt on the idea of Neanderthal burials, but there’s more. Over a century ago, archeologists working in La Ferrassie Cave (France), one of the most important Neanderthal burial sites, recovered several specimens that looked as though they were buried deliberately, but appearances did not hold up under scientific scrutiny. Reanalysis of the site in 2012 suggested these findings were natural burials, not purposeful ones.3 Nevertheless, a follow-up study of another burial location presented possible evidence for the authenticity of Neanderthal burial sites.4 So, the back-and-forth continues. What can be stated confidently is that questions surrounding Neanderthal burials are far from unassailable. [3. Michael Balter, “Did Neandertals Truly Bury Their Dead?,” Science 337 (2012): 1443–44. 4. William Rendu et al., “Evidence Supporting an Intentional Neandertal Burial at La Chapelle-aux-Saints,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 111 (2014): 81–86.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 5490-5496). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· In the past ten years, growing numbers of anthropologists have taken the position that Neanderthals displayed sophisticated behavior. Numerous recent archeological finds have been interpreted to support this view.5 [For a survey of some of these discoveries, see Paola Villa and Wil Roebroeks, “Neandertal Demise: An Archaeological Analysis of the Modern Human Superiority Complex,” PLoS ONE 9 (2014): e96424, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0096424.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 5497-5499). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· When Who Was Adam? was originally published, we argued that one way to explain the association of Neanderthal remains and sophisticated artifacts is the mixing of cave layers. In such a scenario, Neanderthal remains accidentally wound up in the same layer as body ornaments, rings, and pendants. A 2010 study of Grotte du Renne affirmed our explanation.23 Researchers carefully applied radiocarbon dating to the cave layers, expecting that deeper layers would measure progressively older than the upper layers. However, they discovered that the layers’ dates displayed no pattern, indicating that the cave layers were mixed, perhaps by the last occupants, and raising questions as to whether Neanderthals indeed possessed the capacity for symbolic thought. [Thomas Higham et al., “Chronology of the Grotte du Renne (France) and Implications for the Context of Ornaments and Human Remains within the Châtelperronian,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 107 (2010): 20234–39.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 5639-5645). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· The fact that every human being has the identical language capacity compels Tattersall and Chomsky to argue that language originated suddenly. Their argument gains added support from the exponential growth of technology since the time that modern humans first appeared on Earth. This rapid growth must have been facilitated by language. It’s noteworthy that Neanderthal technology did not experience a similar pattern of growth. In fact, it remained largely static from the time Neanderthals first appeared (around 250,000 to 200,000 years ago) to the time they went extinct (around 40,000 years ago.) This implies that these hominids lacked language capacity.  According to Tattersall and Chomsky, By this reckoning, the language faculty is an extremely recent acquisition in our lineage, and it was acquired not in the context of slow, gradual modification of preexisting systems under natural selection but in a single, rapid, emergent event that built upon those prior systems but was not predicted by them…The relatively sudden origin of language poses difficulties that may be called “Darwin’s problem.”30 [Johan J. Bolhuis et al., “How Could Language Have Evolved?” PLoS Biology 12 (2014): e1001934, doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001934.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 5695-5704). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Linguists from the University of São Paulo (in Brazil) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology add support to this new scenario by arguing that when language first appeared, it was not simplistic, but intrinsically complex.31 [Vitor A. Nóbrega and Shigeru Miyagawa, “The Precedence of Syntax in the Rapid Emergence of Human Language in Evolution as Defined by the Integration Hypothesis,” Frontiers in Psychology 6 (2015): doi: 10.3389/fpsyg2015.00271.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 5704-5706). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

Chapter 23: Comparing Chimp and Hominid Behaviors

· Chimps Use Caves for Shelter In 2007, a team of anthropologists from Iowa State University discovered that chimpanzees seek shelter in caves.1 Jill Pruetz and her group collected chimp feces and hair samples from caves in Senegal and uncovered evidence of feeding in these locales. Occasionally, the researchers observed chimps entering and leaving caves. Correlating temperature measurements and cave usage suggests chimps dwell in caves temporarily to avoid extreme heat. [Iowa State University, “Chimps Have Been Found Using Caves for Shelter,” ScienceDaily, posted April 12, 2007, http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/04/070412082939.htm.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 5727-5731). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Chimps Carefully Construct Beds Field observations indicate chimps expend much time and energy selecting a sleeping spot and constructing their treetop beds. These apes bunk as far from the main trunk as possible—with an escape route to neighboring trees. They also carefully select branches made of the stiffest possible material with the greatest bending strength. It is well known that great apes construct sleeping platforms daily. Researchers have observed these creatures choosing certain tree species as a place to build their beds. Until a 2014 study, there was no clear indication why one tree species was chosen over others.2 [David R. Samson and Kevin D. Hunt, “Chimpanzees Preferentially Select Sleeping Platform Construction Tree Species with Biomechanical Properties that Yield Stable, Firm, but Compliant Nests,” PLoS ONE 9 (2014): e104024, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0104024.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 5732-5737). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Chimps Hunt with Spears Another study by Pruetz’s team reported, in 2007, that chimpanzees hunt bush babies (small nocturnal primates) using wooden spears deliberately manufactured from tree branches.3 The spear-production process involves several steps: 1. Selecting an appropriate branch  2. Stripping away smaller side branches and leaves 3. Removing bark from the branch 4. Using incisors to sharpen the ends to a point Wild chimps were observed jabbing spears into tree openings, where the arboreal bush babies sleep in the daytime, to kill their prey. This behavior was observed for males, females, and juveniles and marks the first time an animal has been seen using a tool to hunt a vertebrate. [Jill D. Pruetz and Paco Bertolani, “Savanna Chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus, Hunt with Tools,” Current Biology 17 (2007): 412–17.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 5744-5752). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Chimps Make Stone Tools Another 2007 study documented the range of chimp tool usage observed in the Republic of Congo from 1999 to 2006.4 Chimps from this location typically use tools to puncture, pound, and extract ants and termites from their nests and they usually manufacture tools from materials in their immediate vicinity. Those materials include leaves, twigs, sticks, and branches. Manufacturing processes include anywhere from one to four steps that include removing extraneous parts from the raw material and shaping and cutting it with their hands and mouths. This research demonstrated that chimpanzee tool usage is much more diverse than primatologists previously conceived. Not only that, but chimpanzees also manufacture stone tools to crack open nuts. In 2007, a team of paleontologists uncovered chimp-produced stone tools that date to 4,300 years old.5 Analysis of the tools seemed to indicate that chimps transported stones some distance for later use and sought out raw materials with optimal properties. [4. Crickette M. Sanz and David B. Morgan, “Chimpanzee Tool Technology in the Goualougo Triangle, Republic of Congo,” Journal of Human Evolution 52 (2007): 420–33. 5. Julio Mercader et al., “4,300-Year-Old Chimpanzee Sites and the Origins of Percussive Stone Technology,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 104 (2007): 3043–48.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 5752-5760). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· It appears that chimps behave in ways similar to the first Homo species. Paleoanthropologist Julio Mercader and his coauthors described the commonalities:  The full implications of this line of work require a reevaluation of the terms under which we can make meaningful comparisons of Oldowan and Chimpanzee cultures. The behavioral variables documented at Noulo [archeological site in Côte d’Ivoire] indicate that chimpanzees and hominins share cultural attributes, including the transport of stones across the landscape for a projected use elsewhere; the optimal combination of raw material, size, and weight criteria to perform a predicted activity; the re-occupation of focal points (the accumulation and concentration of both stone and botanical debris is artificially created by behavior); creation of activity areas; the use of locally available resources; and the curation and selection of specific types of stones that are most optimal for specific technological activities.6 [Julio Mercader et al., “4,300-Year-Old Chimpanzee Sites and the Origins of Percussive Stone Technology,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 104 (2007): 3043–48.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 5770-5777). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Chimpanzees shelter in caves, construct their beds carefully, hunt with spears, and make tools from a variety of materials, including stones. Still, these primates are unquestionably and profoundly inferior to humans in terms of cognitive abilities, capacity for rational and symbolic thought, language use, and musical and artistic expression. The growing consensus among primatologists is that human behavior differs from great ape behavior in kind, not just degree. Primate behaviorist Thomas Suddendorf summarizes the recent comparisons of human and great ape behavior: We reflect on and argue about our present situation, our history, and our destiny. We envision wonderful, harmonious worlds as easily as we do dreadful tyrannies. Our powers are used for good as they are for bad, and we incessantly debate which is which. Our minds have spawned civilizations and technologies that have changed the face of the Earth, while our closest living animal relatives sit unobtrusively in their remaining forests. There appears to be a tremendous gap between human and animal minds.7 [Thomas Suddendorf, The Gap: The Science of What Separates Us from Other Animals (New York: Basic Books, 2013), 2–3.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 5784-5792). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Still, it is evident that chimpanzees grieve the loss of community members and have some fear of dying. This sense of loss and fear need not be understood in evolutionary terms. It could be viewed from a biblical vantage point. As Hugh Ross discusses in Hidden Treasures in the Book of Job, birds and mammals are “soulish” creatures created with the capacity for emotion.10 [Hugh Ross, Hidden Treasures in the Book of Job: How the Oldest Book in the Bible Answers Today’s Scientific Questions (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2011), 119–74.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 5818-5821). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

Chapter 24: Trying on the Genes

Chapter 25 Is It Time to Scrap Junk DNA?

· The ability to make predictions about what is yet to be discovered is the true test of a model’s viability. Some skeptics accuse the Reasons to Believe (RTB) model of making predictions after the fact to fit what scientists have already discovered. They are not impressed that most of our predictions (which logically follow based on the model’s tenets) can be evaluated based on past discoveries. So the question persists, does the RTB model make predictions about future discoveries? Yes, it does. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 5912-5916). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· A widespread occurrence of functional pseudogenes and the likely universal distribution of functional pseudogene decoys among eukaryotic organisms undermine the case for biological evolution. It is one thing to say that pseudogenes occasionally acquired function via undirected natural processes, but it is quite another to say that this happened over and over again, until virtually every pseudogene in the genome possessed function. Pseudogenes, therefore, can legitimately be viewed as the work of the Creator who intentionally introduced these features into genomes for a specific purpose. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 6015-6019). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

Chapter 26: Criticisms of RTB’s Human Origins Model

Chapter 27 Three New Questions to Address

· Undergirding RTB’s model is the assumption that the Creator is responsible for life’s origin and history. We believe God created genomes via direct intervention, but, once created, genomes are subjected to physical, chemical, and biochemical events that can induce changes in their structure. The genomics revolution is new, thus RTB’s coverage of this topic is a work in progress. Nevertheless, the following tenets form the basis for our genomics model: • Genomes are created. Some shared features reflect common function and/or common archetype. Meanwhile, some genomic features are unique and reflect special designs that impart biological uniqueness. • Once created, genomes experience mutations and natural selection, sexual selection, and genetic drift. Some mutations are random, rare, and nonreproducible while others are nonrandom, repeatable, and occur at hotspots. • Genomes continually accrue mutations over time that are, in turn, subject to selection. As a corollary, the genomes of organisms created before humans will have experienced more mutational events. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 6472-6481). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· With these principles in mind, the RTB genomics model explains the similarities among organisms’ genomes in one of two ways: • They reflect the work of God who deliberately designed similar genomic features according to a common function or a common blueprint. • They reflect the outworking of physical, chemical, or biochemical processes that occur frequently, are nonrandom, and are reproducible. These processes cause the independent origin of the same features in the genomes of different organisms. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 6481-6485). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

Chapter 28: Where Does the RTB Model Stand?

· Hominid fossils RTB’s model effectively accounted for significant hominid fossil discoveries reported over the last decade. The hominid fossil record is often regarded as evidence for human evolution, but more often than not, new fossil finds have brought greater confusion and uncertainty to evolutionary explanations for human origins. Hominids that were thought to delineate the pathway from an ancestral primate to modern humans have either: (1) been relegated to a side branch; (2) had their status in human evolution questioned; or (3) been rendered nonexistent. A decade of discoveries has highlighted the disconcerting fact that paleoanthropologists cannot map out the evolutionary route to humans. To consider human evolution anything more than a hypothesis seems unwarranted, but we go a step further. We maintain that the bedlam associated with attempts to interpret hominid fossils from an evolutionary view justifies skepticism and supports RTB’s biblical creation view. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 6498-6505). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Ape behavior as a proxy for hominid behavior New insights into primate behavior demonstrate that apes, whether captive or wild, are capable of remarkable behavior. Even so, it is clear they are not in the same behavioral category as humans. However, the ape behavior is comparable to what we know about the behaviors of Homo habilis, Homo erectus, and, to some degree, Neanderthals.  Fresh studies of chimpanzee behavior distance the hominids from humans. Just because the habilines and erectines made and used tools and engaged in hunting and scavenging activity does not necessarily mean they were “becoming human.” Rather, their behavior seems to have been animal-like, particularly when compared to chimpanzee activities. This is in accord with the RTB model. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 6515-6521). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Ape genome comparisons During the past ten years, researchers have determined the sequences for all of the great ape genomes and made comparisons with the human genome. RTB’s human origins model predicts biological similarity (which implies genetic similarity) between humans and other creatures, including apes. As such, our model readily accommodates the results of whole-genome comparisons. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 6521-6524). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Junk DNA Another advance in genetics and a tour de force for RTB’s model involves the sea change in perception about junk DNA. The ENCODE Project has radically altered scientists’ view of the human genome. It is not an evolutionary junkyard, but an elegant system that displays sophistication in its architecture and operation, far beyond what most evolutionary biologists ever imagined. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 6530-6532). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Functional unitary pseudogenes Scientists have discovered that unitary pseudogenes can play a role in regulating gene expression as part of the competitive endogenous RNA hypothesis. This advance stands as a fulfilled prediction for the RTB human origins model. In 2005, we predicted that scientists would eventually discover that unitary pseudogenes are functional. They have done so. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 6533-6536). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Shared designs Advances in genomics have also afforded evolutionary biologists the opportunity to make fine-structure comparisons of the human genome with those of the Neanderthals, Denisovans, and the great apes. These comparisons have revealed innumerable shared features in these genomes. Biologists interpret these shared features—veritable molecular fossils—as compelling evidence that humans and apes share an evolutionary history. But RTB’s model, employing scientific precedent in Sir Richard Owen’s ideas, interprets shared features as a reflection of God’s intent by repurposing common designs. Genetic evidence often cited as common descent can be justifiably claimed as common design. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 6536-6541). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Timing of humanity’s origin In 2005, we predicted that God created human beings between 10,000 and 100,000 years ago. The latest results from molecular anthropology place humanity’s origin between 100,000 and 150,000 years ago. We were wrong. However, the new dates line up with estimates of humanity’s origin from the fossil record (between 100,000 and 200,000 years ago). Though these dates are older than those reported in the first edition of Who Was Adam?, we argue that they still harmonize with Scripture. After carefully reconsidering our interpretation of the genealogies in Genesis 5 and 11, we now take the position that the biblical text implies that Adam and Eve were created while an ice age, probably the most recent one, was in effect.1 [Hugh Ross, Navigating Genesis: A Scientist’s Journey through Genesis 1–11 (Covina, CA: RTB Press, 2014), 75, 96–100, 156–60.] [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 6545-6551). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· Bottleneck at the flood In 2005, we took the position that humanity’s female lineage should trace back to an earlier date than the male lineage. At that time, we suggested the discrepancy between the dates for “mitochondrial Eve” and “Y-chromosomal Adam” could be explained by genetic bottleneck following Noah’s flood. In fact, we took this inconsistency as fulfillment of a key prediction of the RTB human origins model. Unfortunately, the latest results from molecular anthropology no longer allow us to make this claim. We were wrong again. A number of recent studies indicate that mitochondrial Eve and Y-chromosomal Adam lived at the same time and were part of the same population. (However, we take a good deal of comfort in the evidence for concurrent dates for Adam and Eve.) Also, even though the most recent dates fail to support the flood, it does not mean there is a lack of evidence for the flood. For example, the pattern and timing of human migration (discussed in chapter 8) comport well with the biblical account of humanity’s forced spread around the world (Genesis 11), an event that took place after the flood. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 6552-6560). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

· The emergence of symbolic thought A key feature of the RTB human origins model centers on the idea that human beings are uniquely made in God’s image (Genesis 1:26–27). This view leads to two key predictions: (1) human beings should display unique behaviors compared to other creatures (including the hominids); and (2) these behaviors should appear suddenly, coinciding with the appearance of humans. A decade ago anthropologists maintained that human behavior appeared suddenly about 40,000 years ago in an event described as the sociocultural “big bang.” Evidence for this dramatic event came from the archeological record in Europe. It was believed humans migrated to Europe already possessing the capacity for symbolism. However, the most recent dates for mitochondrial Eve and Y-chromosomal Adam (between 100,000 and 150,000 years ago), create a potential problem for RTB’s model. It appears that a discrepancy (of possibly up to 100,000 years) exists between when humans first appeared (based on genetic and fossil data) and when symbolic capability first emerged. We explain in chapter 18 how scientific advances go a long way toward addressing this quandary for our human origins model, but we acknowledge some discomfort. [Fazale Rana; Hugh Ross. Who Was Adam: A Creation Model Approach to the Origin of Humanity (Kindle Locations 6572-6581). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.]

الحمد لله الذي بنعمته تتمّ الصَّالِحات

أضف تعليقاً

إملأ الحقول أدناه بالمعلومات المناسبة أو إضغط على إحدى الأيقونات لتسجيل الدخول:

WordPress.com Logo

أنت تعلق بإستخدام حساب WordPress.com. تسجيل خروج   / تغيير )

صورة تويتر

أنت تعلق بإستخدام حساب Twitter. تسجيل خروج   / تغيير )

Facebook photo

أنت تعلق بإستخدام حساب Facebook. تسجيل خروج   / تغيير )

Google+ photo

أنت تعلق بإستخدام حساب Google+. تسجيل خروج   / تغيير )

Connecting to %s