متى 28 / 19 – اذهبوا وتلمذوا جميع الأمم وعمدوهم باسم الآب والابن والروح القدس

Posted: فبراير 7, 2016 in الكتابات العامة, النقد الكتابي, النقد النصي

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

متى 28 / 19: باسم الآب والابن والرُّوح القُدُس

العبد الفقير إلى الله أبو المُنتصر شاهين المُلقَّب بـ التّاعِب

للتحميل: (PDF) (DOC)

متى 28 / 18-20 (18 فَتَقَدَّمَ يَسُوعُ وَكَلَّمَهُمْ قَائِلاً: «دُفِعَ إِلَيَّ كُلُّ سُلْطَانٍ فِي السَّمَاءِ وَعَلَى الأَرْضِ 19 فَاذْهَبُوا وَتَلْمِذُوا جَمِيعَ الأُمَمِ وَعَمِّدُوهُمْ بِاسْمِ الآبِ وَالاِبْنِ وَالرُّوحِ الْقُدُسِ. 20 وَعَلِّمُوهُمْ أَنْ يَحْفَظُوا جَمِيعَ مَا أَوْصَيْتُكُمْ بِهِ. وَهَا أَنَا مَعَكُمْ كُلَّ الأَيَّامِ إِلَى انْقِضَاءِ الدَّهْرِ». آمِينَ.)

الفترة المفقودة:

[الفترة المفقودة: معروف عند الدارسين أنه كلما قلَّ الفاصل الزمني بين كتابة النسخـة الأصلية وبين المخطوط المكتشف فهذا يجعل المخطوط أكثر مدعاة للثقة به. ومما يميز المخطوطات التي للعهد الجديد بصفة خاصة، عن مخطوطات أي كتاب آخر من الأعمـال الأدبية الأخرى، هو أن الفاصل الزمني بين كتابة النسخة الأصلية وبين المخطوطات التي وصلتنا منها قصير نسبياً.][[1]]

· أقدم مخطوطة يونانية تحتوي على النص = المخطوطة السينائية 325م

· زمن كتابة الإنجيل المنسوب إلى متى = ليس قبل عام 80م[[2]]

· الفترة المفقودة بين الأصل وأقدم مخطوطة = 325 – 80 = 245 عاماً

مُشكلة التعميد باسم يسوع:

أعمال الرسل 2 / 38 فَقَالَ لَهُمْ بُطْرُسُ: «تُوبُوا وَلْيَعْتَمِدْ كُلُّ وَاحِدٍ مِنْكُمْ عَلَى اسْمِ يَسُوعَ الْمَسِيحِ لِغُفْرَانِ الْخَطَايَا فَتَقْبَلُوا عَطِيَّةَ الرُّوحِ الْقُدُسِ.

أعمال الرسل 8 / 14-16 (14 وَلَمَّا سَمِعَ الرُّسُلُ الَّذِينَ فِي أُورُشَلِيمَ أَنَّ السَّامِرَةَ قَدْ قَبِلَتْ كَلِمَةَ اللهِ أَرْسَلُوا إِلَيْهِمْ بُطْرُسَ وَيُوحَنَّا 15 اللَّذَيْنِ لَمَّا نَزَلاَ صَلَّيَا لأَجْلِهِمْ لِكَيْ يَقْبَلُوا الرُّوحَ الْقُدُسَ 16 لأَنَّهُ لَمْ يَكُنْ قَدْ حَلَّ بَعْدُ عَلَى أَحَدٍ مِنْهُمْ – غَيْرَ أَنَّهُمْ كَانُوا مُعْتَمِدِينَ بِاسْمِ الرَّبِّ يَسُوعَ.)

أعمال الرسل 10 / 44-48 (44 فَبَيْنَمَا بُطْرُسُ يَتَكَلَّمُ بِهَذِهِ الْأُمُورِ حَلَّ الرُّوحُ الْقُدُسُ عَلَى جَمِيعِ الَّذِينَ كَانُوا يَسْمَعُونَ الْكَلِمَةَ. 45 فَانْدَهَشَ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ الَّذِينَ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْخِتَانِ كُلُّ مَنْ جَاءَ مَعَ بُطْرُسَ لأَنَّ مَوْهِبَةَ الرُّوحِ الْقُدُسِ قَدِ انْسَكَبَتْ عَلَى الْأُمَمِ أَيْضاً – 46 لأَنَّهُمْ كَانُوا يَسْمَعُونَهُمْ يَتَكَلَّمُونَ بِأَلْسِنَةٍ وَيُعَظِّمُونَ اللهَ. حِينَئِذٍ قَالَ بُطْرُسُ: 47 «أَتُرَى يَسْتَطِيعُ أَحَدٌ أَنْ يَمْنَعَ الْمَاءَ حَتَّى لاَ يَعْتَمِدَ هَؤُلاَءِ الَّذِينَ قَبِلُوا الرُّوحَ الْقُدُسَ كَمَا نَحْنُ أَيْضاً؟» 48 وَأَمَرَ أَنْ يَعْتَمِدُوا بِاسْمِ الرَّبِّ. حِينَئِذٍ سَأَلُوهُ أَنْ يَمْكُثَ أَيَّاماً.) الحياة، العربية المُشتركة، اليسوعية، الإنجيل الشريف، البولسية = يسوع المسيح

أعمال الرسل 19 / 1-5 (1 فَحَدَثَ فِيمَا كَانَ أَبُلُّوسُ فِي كُورِنْثُوسَ أَنَّ بُولُسَ بَعْدَ مَا اجْتَازَ فِي النَّوَاحِي الْعَالِيَةِ جَاءَ إِلَى أَفَسُسَ. فَإِذْ وَجَدَ تَلاَمِيذَ 2 سَأَلَهُمْ: «هَلْ قَبِلْتُمُ الرُّوحَ الْقُدُسَ لَمَّا آمَنْتُمْ؟» قَالُوا لَهُ: «وَلاَ سَمِعْنَا أَنَّهُ يُوجَدُ الرُّوحُ الْقُدُسُ». 3 فَسَأَلَهُمْ: «فَبِمَاذَا اعْتَمَدْتُمْ؟» فَقَالُوا: «بِمَعْمُودِيَّةِ يُوحَنَّا». 4 فَقَالَ بُولُسُ: «إِنَّ يُوحَنَّا عَمَّدَ بِمَعْمُودِيَّةِ التَّوْبَةِ قَائِلاً لِلشَّعْبِ أَنْ يُؤْمِنُوا بِالَّذِي يَأْتِي بَعْدَهُ أَيْ بِالْمَسِيحِ يَسُوعَ». 5 فَلَمَّا سَمِعُوا اعْتَمَدُوا بِاسْمِ الرَّبِّ يَسُوعَ.)

مُشكلة اقتباسات يوسابيوس القيصري:

Eusebius (17 times) before Nicea (325 CE)

· The Proof of the Gospel     (البُرهان الإنجيلي)       5 times

· Commentary in Psalms      (تفسير المزامير)           4 times

· The Theophania                     (الظُّهُور الإلهي)          4 times

· Commentary in Isaiah         (تفسير إشعياء)            2 times

· History of the Church          (تاريخ الكنيسة)          1 time

· In Praise of Constantine     (مَديح قُسطنطين)        1 time

اقتباسات يوسابيوس من كتاب: البُرهان الإنجيلي

The Proof of the Gospel, Vol. 1, edited and translated by W.J. Ferrar, 1981, page 157 [“Whereas He, who conceived nothing human or mortal, see how truly he speaks with the voice of God, saying in these very words to those disciples of His, the poorest of the poor: ’Go forth, and make disciples of all the nations.’ ‘But how,’ the disciples might reasonably have answered the Master, ‘can we do it?’… But while the disciples of Jesus were most likely either saying thus, or thinking thus, the Master solved their difficulties, by the addition of one phrase, saying they should triumph ‘IN MY NAME.’ For He did not bid them simply and indefinitely ‘make disciples of all nations,’ but with the necessary addition ‘In My Name.’ And the power of His Name being so great, that the Apostle says: ‘God has given him a name which is above every name, that in the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of things in heaven, and things in earth, and things under the earth.’ He showed the virtue of the power in His Name concealed from the crowd, when He said to His Disciples: ‘Go, and make disciples of all nations in my name.’]

الترجمة: “في حين أنه هو الذي لم يحمل شيئاً إنسانياً أو فانياً، نرى كيف أنه يتحدَّث صادقاً بصوت الله، قائلاً بهذه الكلمات بعينها لتلاميذه، أفقر الفقراء: “اذهبوا وتلمذوا جميع الأمم“، كان بإمكان التلاميذ أن يُجيبوا السَّيِّد بمنطقيَّة: “ولكن كيف؟ هل نستطيع أن نفعل ذلك؟” … ولكن بينما كان تلاميذ يسوع على الأرجح يقولون هذا أو يتفكَّرون بهذا، حلَّ السَّيِّد الصعوبات التي يواجهونها، من خلال إضافة عبارة واحدة، قائلاً إنهم يجب عليهم أن ينتَّصروا “باسمي“، لأنه لم يأمرهم ببساطة وبشكل غامض أن “تلمذوا جميع الأمم“، ولكن مع إضافة ضرورية “باسمي“، وقد قال الرَّسُول بسبب قوة اسمه ومدى عظمته: “الله أعطاه اسماً فوق كل اسم، لكي تجثو باسم يسوع كل ركبة ممن في السماء ومن على الأرض ومن تحت الأرض”. لقد أظهر فعالية السلطان المخفي في اسمه عن الجموع، عندما قال لتلاميذه: “اذهبوا وتلمذوا جميع الأمم باسمي“.

The Proof of the Gospel, Vol. 1, edited and translated by W.J. Ferrar, 1981, page 152 [“But our Lord and Savior did not conceive and not dare to attempt, neither did he attempt and not succeed. With one voice He said to His disciples: ‘Go and make disciples of all nation in My Name,‘ teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you.’ And He enjoined the effect of His Word; and in a little while every race of the Greek and Barbarians was being brought into discipleship.”]

الترجمة: “لكن سيِّدنا ومُخلِّصنا لم يُعبِّر ولم يجرؤ على الاعتداء، ولم يُحاول الاعتداء وفشل. قال بصوت واحد لتلاميذه: “اذهبوا وتلمذوا جميع الأمم باسمي، وعلموهم أن يحفظوا كل ما أمرتكم به”. وقد فرض تأثير كلمته، وبعد فترة زمنية بسيطة كان كل أجناس اليونانيين والبرابرة أتوا إلى تلمَذته”.

The Proof of the Gospel, Vol. 1, edited and translated by W.J. Ferrar, 1981, page 159 [“I am irresistibly forced to retrace my steps, and search for their cause, and to confess that they could only have succeeded in their daring venture, by a power more divine, and more strong than man’s, and by the cooperation of Him Who said to them: ‘Make Disciples of all nations in my Name.’]

الترجمة: أنا مُجبَر بشكلٍ لا أستطيع مُقاومته، أن أعيد ترتيب خطواتي، وأن أبحث لقضيتهم، وأن أعترف أنهم لم يكونوا لينجحوا في مُغامرتهم الجريئة إلا من خلال سُلطان إلهي أكبر، وأكثر قوة من سُلطان الرِّجال، وبالتعاون مع الذي قال لهم: “تلمذوا جميع الأمم باسمي“.

The Proof of the Gospel, Vol. 2, edited and translated by W.J. Ferrar, 1981, page 175 [“‘For I came and there was no man, I called and there was none that heard.’ And He says to them, ‘The Kingdom of God shall be taken away from you, and shall be given to a nation bearing the fruits of it.’ And He bid His own disciples after their rejection, ‘Go ye make disciples of all the nations in my name.'”]

 

الترجمة: “فقد جئتُ ولكن لم يكن هُناك رجلاً، ناديتُ ولم يكن هُناك سامعاً”. ويقول لهم: “ملكوت الله سيُنزع منكم، وسيُعطى لأمَّة تعم أثمارها”. وأمر تلاميذه بعد رفضهم، “اذهبوا تلمذوا جميع الأمم باسمي“.

اقتباسات يوسابيوس من كتاب: الظُّهُور الإلهي

The Theophania from the Syriac, Text edited by Samuel Lee, London 1842. Cambridge 1843, page 333 [“But he who used nothing human or mortal, see how in truth he again conceded the oracle of God, in the word which he spoke to his disciples, the weak ones, saying, ‘Go ye and make disciples of all the peoples…‘ These things then (scil. how can we do this? how preach to the Romans, etc.) the disciples of our savior would either have said or thought; so by a simple addition of a word, he resolved the sum of those things of which they doubted, the sum of them he committed to them in that he said, ye conquer ‘in my name.’ For it was not that he ordered them simply and without discriminating, to ‘go and make disciples of all the peoples,’ but with the important addition, and he said ‘in my name.’ For because of the power of his name did all this come about, even as the Apostle said, God has given him a name more excellent than all names, that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, which is in heaven and in earth and under the earth…”]

The Theophania from the Syriac, Text edited by Samuel Lee, London 1842. Cambridge 1843, page 336 [“The Disciples could not otherwise have undertaken this enterprise, than by a Divine power which exceeds that of man, and by the assistance of Him who said to them, ‘Go, and make Disciples of all nations in my name.’ And when he had said this to them, he attached to it the promise, by which they should be so encouraged, as readily to give themselves up to the things commanded. For he said unto them, “Behold I am with you always, even to the end of the world.”]

The Theophania from the Syriac, Text edited by Samuel Lee, London 1842. Cambridge 1843, page 242 [“Our Savior said to them therefore, after His resurrection, ‘Go ye and make Disciples of all nations in my name.’ And these things He said, who formerly had commanded: “In the way of the Gentiles go ye not,” but enjoined them that they should preach to the Jews only. But, when these abused their inviters, then He dismissed the servants the second time, and said, “go ye out into the ways and paths, and all that ye find call to the feast.”]

The Theophania from the Syriac, Text edited by Samuel Lee, London 1842. Cambridge 1843, page 298 [“Which of the magicians is it, whoever projected that which our Saviour did? But, if one did so project; still he dared not to advance this. But, if one so dared; still he brought not the matter to effect. He (the Saviour) said in one word and enouncement to His Disciples, ‘Go and make disciples of all nations in my name, and teach ye them everything that I have commanded you.’ And the deed he made to follow the word. For thence, every race of the Greeks and Barbarians became at once, and in a short space of time, (His) Disciples.”]

اقتباسات يوسابيوس من كتاب: تاريخ الكنيسة

Ecclesiastical History, translated by C.F. Cruse, (1998) Book 3, Chap. 5, page 70 [“But the rest of the apostles, who were harassed in innumerable ways with a view to destroy them and drive them from the land of Judea, had gone forth to preach the Gospel to all the nations, relying upon the aid of Christ, when he said, ‘Go ye, teach all nations in my name.’]

الترجمة: ولكن بقية التلاميذ الذين تم التآمر ضدهم بغية القضاء عليهم، قد تم طردهم من أرض اليهودية، وذهبوا إلى جميع الأمم ليبشروا بالإنجيل، معتمدين على قوة المسيح الذي قال لهم: “اذهبوا وتلمذوا جميع الأمم باسمي“.

اقتباسات يوسابيوس من كتاب: مديح قُسطنطين

The Oration in Praise of Constantine, Chap. 16, page 907-908 [“What king or prince in any age of the world, what philosopher, legislator, or prophet, in civilized or barbarous lands, has attained so great a height of excellence, I say not after death, but while living still, and full of mighty power, as to fill the ears and tongues of all mankind with the praises of his name? Surely none save our only Savior has done this, when, after his victory over death, he spoke the word to his followers, and fulfilled it by the event, saying to them, ‘Go ye, and make disciples of all nations in my name.’]

اقتباسات يوسابيوس من كتاب: تفسير المزامير

The Lord’s Command to Baptise, Bernard H. Cuneo, 1923, page 77Psalms 59:9 [“According to another explanation, the words Sichem, Galaad, Manasses, Ephraim, Juda, Moab, and Edom represent all nations indiscriminately. The Jews are mentioned in the first place, because to them first should the kingdom of God be announced; but after them Christ commanded his disciples to preach the Gospel ‘to all the nations in his name.'”]

The Lord’s Command to Baptise, Bernard H. Cuneo, 1923, page 78Psalms 65:5-6 [“All nations are invited to come consider the awe-inspiring deeds, which God performed in behalf of his people, in Egypt, in the Red Sea, in the Jordan; and to reflect that he who could confute his enemies of old, is still powerful against them. Hence we should rejoice in him, who by his power endureth forever. We should understand these words of that saying of Christ: ‘All power is given to me in heaven and on earth. Going make disciples of all the nations in my name.’ Wherefore Aquila translates it: ‘who exercises authority in his power forever.'”]

The Lord’s Command to Baptise, Bernard H. Cuneo, 1923, page 78Psalms 67:34 [“That Christ’s voice was endowed with power is evident from his deeds; for when he said to his disciples: ‘Come, follow me, and I shall make you fishers of men,” he actually fulfilled this promise by his power; and again when he commanded them saying: ‘Going make disciples of all the nations in my name,’ he manifested his power in very deed.”]

The Lord’s Command to Baptise, Bernard H. Cuneo, 1923, page 79Psalms 76:20 [“From the preceding verse we learn that the earth shook and trembled. This was realized when Christ entered Jerusalem, and the entire city was in consternation; also when the nations of the world trembled upon hearing the words of the Gospel from the lips of the Apostles. How should we understand the prophet when he says that Christ’s way is in the sea, and his paths in many waters, and his footsteps will not be known? This passage receives light from his promise to his disciples: ‘Going make disciples of all nations in my name,’ and, ‘Behold I am with you all days even to the end of the world.’ For throughout the entire world, invisibly present to his disciples, he traveled on the sea of life, and in the many waters of the nations. This he accomplished by his invisible and hidden power.”]

اقتباسات يوسابيوس من كتاب: تفسير إشعياء

The Lord’s Command to Baptise, Bernard H. Cuneo, 1923, page 79Isaiah 18:2 [“This command seems to be given to the disciples of our Savior. Since they are messengers of good tidings, they are called messengers, and light ones, to distinguish them from the apostles of the Jews. Wherefore the prophet addresses these messengers of good tidings thus: You disciples of Christ, go as the Savior himself has commanded you; ‘Go rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel,’ and ‘Going make disciples of all the nations in my name.'”]

The Lord’s Command to Baptise, Bernard H. Cuneo, 1923, page 80Isaiah 34:16 [“For he who said to them, ‘make disciples of all the nations in my name,’ also forbad them to establish churches in one and the same place.”]

الحمد لله الذي بنعمته تتم الصالحات


[1] يوسف رياض: وحي الكتاب المقدس، مكتبة الإخوة – صـ68.

[2] ر. ت. فرانس: التفسير الحديث للكتاب المقدس (العهد الجديد، إنجيل متى)، دار الثقافة – صـ19.

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